Nutrition

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Author:
awnoles
ID:
45736
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Nutrition
Updated:
2010-10-28 18:06:42
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JSU Nursing Foundations
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Description:
Diets - Carbs./Protien/Fats
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  1. What is Nutrition?
    • Encompasses the study of nutrients and how they are handled by the body
    • Food is ingested, digested, and absorbed to provide the energy needed for organ function, body movement, and work; and for enzyme function, growth, repair, and replacement of cells
  2. Which Diet:

    Provides fluids and electrolytes. Includes foods that are opaque.
    EXAMPLES: milk products, strained vegetable soups (potato).

    A. Normal/Regular
    B. Clear Liquid
    C. Full Liquid Diet
    D. Light/Soft Diet
    E. Mechanical Soft Diet
    F. Tube Feeding
    • C. Full Liquid Diet
    • Usually for patients who have had surgical operations.
  3. Which Diet:

    Provides all essentials of good nourishment in normal forms.

    A. Normal/Regular
    B. Clear Liquid
    C. Full Liquid Diet
    D. Light/Soft Diet
    E. Mechanical Soft Diet
    F. Tube Feeding
    • A. Normal/Regular
    • For patients who do not need special diets.
  4. Which Diet:

    Consists of Milk formula or liquid forms of meat, vegetables, etc. given to the patient through the tube.

    A. Normal/Regular
    B. Clear Liquid
    C. Full Liquid Diet
    D. Light/Soft Diet
    E. Mechanical Soft Diet
    F. Tube Feeding
    • F. Tube Feeding
    • For patients who, because of a condition such as oral surgery, can’t eat normally.
  5. Which Diet:

    Provides fluids and electrolytes. Includes foods that are liquid and transparent at room temperature.
    EXAMPLES: jello, apple juice, broth, popsicles, coffee, and tea. Orange and grape juices are not included.

    A. Normal/Regular
    B. Clear Liquid
    C. Full Liquid Diet
    D. Light/Soft Diet
    E. Mechanical Soft Diet
    F. Tube Feeding
    • B. Clear Liquid
    • Usually for patients who have had surgical operations.
  6. Which Diet:

    The foods are the same as on a normal diet. But they are chopped or strained and easy to chew and swallow. Pureed foods sometimes are ordered.

    A. Normal/Regular
    B. Clear Liquid
    C. Full Liquid Diet
    D. Light/Soft Diet
    E. Mechanical Soft Diet
    F. Tube Feeding
    • E. Mechanical Soft Diet
    • For patients who have difficulty in chewing or swallowing.
  7. Which Diet:

    Foods that are soft in consistency; no rich or strongly flavored foods that could cause distress.

    A. Normal/Regular
    B. Clear Liquid
    C. Full Liquid Diet
    D. Light/Soft Diet
    E. Mechanical Soft Diet
    F. Tube Feeding
    • D. Light/Soft Diet
    • Final stage for postoperative patient before resuming a regular diet.
  8. What are the 6 Essential Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein
    • Fats
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  9. Explain Energy Balance.
    • The body needs energy to function!
    • Energy is derived or obtained from foods consumed.
    • Energy in the diet is measured in form of kilocalories (calories)
    • Protein, fat, and carbohydrates are measured in kilocalories/gm
  10. What is the Amount of energy at rest; the energy needed at the lowest level of cellular function?
    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  11. Carbohydrates provide __ kcal/ gram
    4 kcal/ gram

    50-100 grams of carbs needed daily

    45-65 % of total daily calories
  12. Protein provide __ kcal/ gram
    4 kcal/ gram

    40-60 grams for adults (+20 if pregnant)

    10-35 % of total daily calories
  13. Lipids (fats) provide __ kcal/gram
    9 kcal/gram

    20-35 % of total daily calories
  14. What are Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and O2?
    • Carbohydrates:
    • Sugars and Starches
  15. What are large molecules composed of amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, acid and nitrogen?
    Protein
  16. What provides:
    –Hormone production
    –Insulation for the body
    –Support and cushion for organs
    –Absorbtion of fat-soluble vitamins
    –Flavor and texture to foods
    Lipids (fats)
  17. Simple Carbs include:
    Monosaccharide- composed of one sugar molecule

    Disaccharides- “double sugar” composed of 2 monosaccharide
  18. Monosaccharides (composed of one sugar molecule) include:
    GFG

    • Glucose (dextrose)
    • Fructose (‘fruit sugar”)
    • Galactose –combines with glucose to form disaccharide lactose
  19. Disaccharides (“double sugar” composed of 2 monosaccharide) include:
    SLM

    • Sucrose “sugar”
    • Lactose “milk sugar”
    • Maltose
  20. Complex Carbs include:
    Polysaccharides- glycogen store in liver, fiber (Starch, fiber and glycogen)
  21. ____ and ____take “extra” glucose and store as glycogen
    Muscle and liver
  22. Although nondigestible - FIBERS have important physiologic functions and provide significant health benefits such as:
    • Constipation
    • Diverticular disease
    • Obesity
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Breast and colon cancer
  23. 1 carbohydrate serving = __ grams of carbohydrate
    15
  24. Carbs are found mainly in plant foods; only animal source is _______
    milk “lactose”
  25. 3 main factors influence the body's requirements for protein
    • 1—tissue growth needs
    • 2--quality of the protein in the diet
    • 3—if there are any added needs due to illness
  26. Protein has 20 Amino acids:
    ___ essential (are not made by the body they must be consumed)
    ___ non essential (can be synthesized in the liver)
    • 9 essentail
    • 11 non-essentail
  27. What does protein do?
    • Support growth of new tissues and to replace tissues that break down from normal wear and tear Nitrogen balance, catabolic and anabolic
    • Transports nutrients and other vital substances
    • Supports the immune system
    • Back up energy
    • Synthesis body secretions and fluids
  28. meat, fish, milk, cheese, poultry, eggs are

    A. Complementary Protien
    B. Incomplete Protein
    C. Complete Protein
    C. Complete Protein

    Supply adequate amounts/ ratio of all essential amino acids needed by the body for growth / tissue maintenance
    (animail sources and soy)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. cheese sandwich, rice pudding, cereal with milk

    A. Incomplete Protein
    B. Complementary Protien
    C. Complete Protein
    B. Complementary Protien

    When eaten together, combine to act as complete protein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. cereal, legumes, vegetables

    A. Complementary Protien
    B. Incomplete Protein
    C. Complete Protein
    B. Incomplete Protein

    Deficient one or more essential amino acids
    (All plants sources with exception of soy are incomplete)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Triglycerides are:
    • The form of fat in food.
    • They combine with glycerol to supply energy to the body Allow fat-soluble vitamin transport Forms adipose tissue –protects the body
  32. Phospholipids come from ______ They are important to _________
    • triglycerides
    • cell membrane structure
  33. Cholesterol belongs to chemical substance group sterols. They are necessary for _________.
    cell membrane stability
  34. Saturated fat= usually _____ at room temperature
    Found primarily in _______, _______ and _______
    • solid
    • animal foods, palm and coconut oils
  35. Monounsaturated fat= usually _____ at room temperature
    Found in ______, _______ and ______
    • liquid
    • certain vegetables, nuts and vegetable oils
  36. Polyunsaturated fat = usually ____ at room temperature
    Found in _______, ______, ______ and ______
    • liquid
    • certain vegetables, nuts, vegetable oils and in fatty fish
  37. Linoleic acid is found in ______
    polyunsaturated vegetable oils
  38. Essential Fatty acids include Omega-__ and Omega-__
    3, 6
  39. What does Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) do?
    carry triglycerides to the tissue
  40. What does Low density lipoprotein (LDL) (“bad” cholesterol) do?
    carry cholesterol to the tissue
  41. What does High density lipoprotein (HDL) (“good” cholesterol) do?
    remove excess from tissue
  42. Saturated fats _____ levels of LDL (the "bad")
    raise
  43. Unsaturated fats ___ levels of LDL (the "bad")
    lower
  44. What are the Health Benefits of Vitamins?
    • Build and maintain body tissue
    • Support our immunity system- Antioxidants
    • Help our vision
    • Assist body to break down carbohydrate, proteins and lipids
  45. What are Vitamins?
    • Organic structures essential to metabolism
    • Highest content in fresh foods
  46. What are the FAT SOLUBLE vitamins?
    A, D, E, and K

    • Can be stored in body
    • daily intake may not be necessary
    • large doses may be toxic
  47. Which FAT SOLUABLE Vitamin do you get from: sunlight, fish liver oils. And fortifies milk?

    A. Vitamin A
    B. Vitamin E
    C. Vitamin D
    D. Vitamin K
    C. Vitamin D
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which FAT SOLUABLE Vitamin do you get from: dark green leafy vegetable, and synthesis from bacteria in the intestines?

    A. Vitamin K
    B. Vitamin E
    C. Vitamin A
    D. Vitamin D
    A. Vitamin K
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which FAT SOLUABLE Vitamin do you get from: liver, carrots, eggs yolk, and fortified milk?

    A. Vitamin K
    B. Vitamin D
    C. Vitamin E
    D. Vitamin A
    D. Vitamin A
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which FAT SOLUABLE Vitamin do you get from: vegetable oil, wheat germ, and whole grains?

    A. Vitamin K
    B. Vitamin D
    C. Vitamin E
    D. Vitamin A
    C. Vitamin E
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which Vitamins are WATER SOLUBLE?
    Vitamin C and B Complex

    • They Cannot be stored in the body
    • and must be ingested daily
  52. Which vitamin can be found in:

    Organ meats, pork, seafood, egg yolk, yeast, green leafy vegetables, grains, nuts, banana, and cantaloupe
    B COMPLEX:

    Includes thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid, cobalamin, pantothetic acid, and biotin
  53. Where can you find VITAMIN C?
    • Citrus fruits
    • broccoli
    • green pepper
    • greens
    • strawberries
  54. What are Minerals?
    • Found in all body fluids and tissues
    • Essential to health of bone and blood
    • Help regulate body processes—fluid regulation, nerve impulse transmission and energy production
    • Disease prevention
    • Calcium and phosphorus make up 80 % of all the mineral elements in body
  55. Macrominerals - need ___ mg/ml day or greater
    100
  56. Microminerals - need less than ___ mg/ml day
    100
  57. Why does our body need water?
    • Regulates body temperature--Thirst is a protective mechanism
    • Aids in digestion and absorption of nutrients
    • Cell function depends on fluid movement
    • Eliminates waste products

    RACE

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