Chapter 18

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kfs9504
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45761
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Chapter 18
Updated:
2010-10-28 19:07:25
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cardiovascular system
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Part A
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  1. Which lung will be a little smaller than the other?
    left
  2. Superficial fibrous pericardium
    protects, anchors, and prevents overfilling
  3. visceral layer (epicardium)
    external surface of the heart
  4. pericardial cavity
    fluid filled that decreases friction
  5. epicardium
    visceral layer of serous pericardium
  6. myocardium
    main wall of heart (muscle)
  7. Fibrous skeleton of the heart
    Chordae tendonae and heart valves that anchor cardiac muscle fibers and support
  8. Endocardium
    continuous with endothelium
  9. Cardiac muscle bundles
    gernates force to push blood out of the heart
  10. what seperates the two ventricles?
    interventricular septum
  11. what increase atrial volume?
    auricles
  12. Atria
    walls are ridged by pectinate muscles and thin
  13. vessels entering right atrium
    superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
  14. vessels entering left atrium
    right and left pulmonary veins
  15. ventricles
    walls are ridged by trabeculae carneae and papillary muscles project into the ventricular cavities
  16. vessel leaving the right ventricle
    pulmonary trunk
  17. vessel leaving the left ventricle
    aorta
  18. which ventricle has the most muscles in the wall?
    left
  19. systemic arteries are rich in ______ and low in _____
    rich oxygen, low carbon dioxide
  20. systemic veins are ____ in oxygen and _____ in carbon dioxide
    low in oxygen, rich in co2
  21. which way do arteries carry blood
    away from the heart
  22. what is used to prevent prolapse?
    tendonae chordae
  23. where do veins carry blood?
    back to the heart
  24. how long does it take to complete one circuit of blood when at rest?
    30 seconds
  25. Pathway of blood through the heart
    • right atrium
    • tricuspid valve
    • right ventricle
    • pulmonary semilunar valve
    • pulmonary trunk
    • pulmonary arteries
    • lungs
    • pulmonary veins
    • left atrium
    • bicuspid valve
    • left ventricle
    • aortic semilunar valve
    • aorta
    • systemic circulation
  26. Are equal volumes of blood pumped to the pulmonary and systemic circuits?
    yes
  27. pulmonary circuit
    short, low pressure circulation (1/3 of systemic pressure)
  28. systemic circuit
    blood encounters much resistance in the long pathways of high pressure
  29. The interventricular septum works like what ventricle?
    left ventricle
  30. coronary arteries get blood from where?
    aorta
  31. Does coronary circulations function aerobicly?
    yes
  32. Coronary Circulation
    the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself
  33. What is the common receiving center from all other veins?
    coronary sinus
  34. Angina pectoris
    thoracic pain, cells are weakend, with rest strength can be regained
  35. myocardial infarction (heart attack)
    prolonged coronary blockage that almost always involves ventricles (cells die)
  36. What is the first step of the Cardiac cycle?
    atrial systole and ventricular diastole
  37. What is the 2nd step of the cardiac cycle?
    ventricular systole and atrial diastole
  38. What is the last step of the cardiac cycle
    atrial and ventricular diastole
  39. Which of the three steps in the cardiac cycle last the longest?
    The last step (3rd step)
  40. systole
    heart actively contracting
  41. diastole
    relaxing/ relaxed
  42. atrioventricular valves
    prevent backflow into the atria, tricuspid valve and mitral valve
  43. semilunar valves
    prevent backflow into the ventricles, aortic and pulmonary semilunar valve
  44. lowest pressure on average is in the atriums or ventricles?
    atriums
  45. is cardiac muslce aerobic or anaerobic?
    aerobic
  46. size of skeletal muscle cells
    large
  47. size of cardiac muscle cells
    small
  48. What is the connective tissue matrix that connects to the fibrous skeleton?
    endomysium
  49. what makes up a large volume of a cell
    mitochondria
  50. What does the mitochrondria do for a cell
    performs cell respiration to give cardiac muscle oxygen
  51. intercalated discs
    junctions between cells anchor cardiac cells
  52. desmosomes
    prevent cells from seperating during contraction
  53. gap junctions
    allow ions to pass, electrically couple adjacent cells

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