Urinary System 6

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Urinary System 6
2010-11-02 17:18:10
urinary system urine

Urinary System Anatomy and Function
Show Answers:

  1. internal urethral sphincter
  2. What is this specific structure?
    prostatic urethra
  3. Which structures carry away reabsorbed substances from filtrate?
    peritubular capillaries
  4. What is the process of filtration driven by?
    Blood hydrostatic pressure
  5. Where does the process of filtration occur?
    Bowman's capsule
  6. When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) increases what happens?
    less urine is produced
  7. functions of juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    • 1) renin formation
    • 2) erythropoietin formation
    • 3) endocrine function
    • 4) junction between the ascending loop of Henle and the afferent arteriole
  8. what happens in loop of Henle?
    Sodium and chloride ions are actively transported out of the ascending limb
  9. primary function of proximal convoluted tubule?
    Absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water
  10. when does tubule secretion occur?
    Wastes are removed from the blood and secreted into the tubular filtrate
  11. what does a Sympathetic innervation of the afferent arterioles cause?
    Decrease in GFR and slowing of filtrate production
  12. structures that compose nephron?
    • ´╗┐renal corpuscle
    • loop of Henle
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • distal convoluted tubule
  13. how does vegetarian diet affect urine pH?
    more alkaline
  14. first step in urine formation?
  15. if kidney infection suspected, what do you look for in kidney?
    • pyuria
    • nitrates
  16. is it normal or abnormal to have trace amounts of creatinine in urine?
  17. What is the name of the process where water and solutes move from the blood into the
    kidney tubules?
    tubular secretion
  18. causes of albuminuria?
    increased permeability of filtration membrane d/t High blood prssure, kidney trauma, disease, inflammation
  19. glucosuria?
    glucose in urine
  20. tubular reabsorption?
    water and solutes move from kidney tubules into blood
  21. anorexia and starvation. How can you tell by urine?
    • Ketonuria
    • decrease urine pH
  22. calculi
    insoluble salt crystals in urine
  23. casts
    hard clumps of cells or protien in urine
  24. process where water and solutes move from blood to capsular space?
  25. ketonuria?
    ketone bodies in urine
  26. hematuria
    RBC in urine
  27. function of loop of Henle?
    control water loss via urine
  28. normal urine color
    yellow or amber. Darker in color is higher concentration
  29. kidney stone clinical term?
  30. pyuria?
    WBC in urine
  31. cause of pyuria?
  32. movement of substances from peritubular capillaries into renal tubules?
    tubular secretion
  33. what does specific gravity measure?
  34. what does a low specific gravity represent?
    dilute urine
  35. cause of hematuria?
    • damage to urinary system d/t
    • 1) inflammation
    • 2) trauma
    • 3) disease
    • 4) kidney stone
    • 5) tumor
  36. cause of ketonuria?
    • ketosis
    • 1) starvation
    • 2) low carb diet
    • 3) uncontrolled diabetes
  37. if you have glucosuria what can it indicate?
    • diabetes
    • stress
  38. high specific gravity means what?
    concentrated urine
  39. urine smell is sweet and fruity, what would you expect to find on urinalysis?
  40. high protien diet will affect urine pH how?
    makes it more acidic as purines are converted to uric acid
  41. why is a small amt of creatinine good ?
    normal muscle metabolism
  42. why are trace levels of urea normal in urine?
    amino acid metabolism
  43. causes of hemoglobinuria?
    • anemia
    • transfusion reaction
    • burn
    • snake bite
    • renal disease
  44. cause of bilirubinuria?
    • hepatitis
    • cirrhosis
    • blocked bile duct
  45. cause of nitrates in urine
    gram negative bacteria
  46. polynephritis?
    inflammation of kidney
  47. Which structures carry away reabsorbed substances from filtrate?
    peritubular capillaries
  48. what drives the process of filtration?
    Blood hydrostatic pressure
  49. process of filtration occurs at what structure?
    bowman's capsule
  50. When ADH increases, (antidiuretic hormone) what happens to urine?
    less urine is produced.
  51. causes of bilirubinuria?
    • hepatitis
    • liver disease
    • cirrhosis
    • blocked bile duct
    • hepatocellular disease
  52. what is calculi known as?
    kidney stones
  53. Excessive hemolysis will cause what condition in the urine?
  54. What do nitrites in the urine indicate?
    gram negative bacteria
  55. What does polynephritis mean?
    inflammation of kidney
  56. What is the primary force that forms the first fluid during urine formation?
    hydrostatic pressure
  57. What is the process for movement of hydrogen ions from the blood into the proximal convoluted tubule?
    tubular secretion
  58. What is the presence of white blood cells in the urine called
  59. Which portion of the nephron is primarily responsible for moving glucose from the filtrate into the blood?
    proximal convoluted tubule
  60. What does specific gravity measure?
  61. Where does urea in the urine come from?
    amino acid metabolism
  62. is uric acid in urine normal or abnormal?
  63. leukocytes normal in urine?
    no, means infections
  64. creatinine normal in urine?
    yes in trace amounts,