Nutrition part 2

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Author:
awnoles
ID:
45766
Filename:
Nutrition part 2
Updated:
2010-10-28 19:13:50
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JSU Nursing Foundation
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Description:
Food Pyramind, Nursing Process, and Diets
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  1. According to the Food Pyramid you need:

    Grains (eat ___ every day)
    Fruit ( __ cups every day)
    Vegetables ( __ cups every day)
    Meat and beans (eat ___ oz. every day)
    Milk ( __ cups daily) ( for children 2 to 8 its __ cups)
    Fats, Oils, & Sweets (use sparingly)
  2. Grains (eat 6 oz. every day)
    • Fruit (2 cups every day)
    • Vegetables (2 ½ cups every day)
    • Meat and beans (eat 5 ½ oz. every day)
    • Milk (3 cups daily) ( for children 2 to 8 its 2 cups)
    • Fats, Oils, & Sweets (use sparingly)
  3. Physiological RISK factors for Nutrition include:
    • Developmental considerations
    • State of health
    • Alcohol abuse
    • Medication
  4. Socioculture/ Psychosocial RISK factors for Nutrition include:
    • Religion / culture
    • Economics
    • Meaning of food
  5. Dietary Risk Factors for Malnutrition include:
    • disease
    • eating poorly
    • tooth/mouth pain
    • economic hardship
    • reduced social contact
    • multiple medicines
    • involuntary wieght loss/gain
    • needs assistance in self care
    • elder years above age 80

    DETERMINE
  6. What things do you need to know for a nutritional assess?
    • History - Dietary, Socioeconomic
    • Physical - Anthropometrics, BMI, Clinical findings
    • Laboratory data
  7. What are Anthropometric measurements?
    • Height and weight (most common obtained)
    • Triceps skin fold measurement
    • Midarm circumference
    • BMI
  8. Clinical Signs of Nutritional Status
  9. •Signs do not appear until late
    • •General Appearance
    • •Mouth
    • •Gums
    • •Skin
    • •Hair
    • •Musculoskeletal
    • •Circulation
    • •Mental Status
    • •Weight
  10. What lab data do you need for a nutritional assessment?
  11. Hemoglobin (O2 carrying protein of the red blood cells)
    • Hematocrit (volume of red blood cells packed)
    • Albumin
    • Prealbumin
    • Transferrin
    • 24 hour urine
    • Urine creatinine Nitrogen Balance
    • (UUN)-Urine urea nitrogen
  12. A clear liquid diet includes:
  13. •Gelatin
    • •Fat free broth
    • •Bouillon
    • •Ice pops
    • •Clear juices
    • •Carbonated beverages
    • •Regular and decaf beverages
  14. A Full Liquid Diet includes:
    • •Milk
    • •Plain frozen desserts
    • •Cream of tomato soup
    • •Vanilla milk shake
    • •Ice cream
  15. What does the BRAT diet include?
    • Bananas
    • Rice
    • Applesauce
    • Toast

    (recomended for children experiencing N/D)
  16. Short term Feeding Tudes include:
    • Nasogastric
    • Nasointestinal (small intestine)
  17. Long term feeding tubes include:
    • Gastrostomy (stomach)
    • PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy)
  18. What are some Indications for usage of Feeding Tubes?
    • Inadequate oral intake/ NPO
    • Difficulty swallowing/ chewing
    • Anorexia nervosa
    • Prolonged lack of appetite
    • Cancer
    • Severe depression
  19. Contraindications for Feeding Tubes include:
    • Intestinal obstruction
    • Paralytic ileus
    • Intractable vomiting
    • Severe diarrhea
    • High risk for aspiration
  20. What does PEG stand for?
    Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
  21. What type of feeding formula are these:

    Ensure, Sustacal, Resource, Meritene
    • Polymetric
    • (GI tract must be able to absorb whole nutrients)
  22. What type of feeding formula are these:

    Single macronutients
    • Modular
    • (Used in conjunction with other food therapy)
  23. What type of feeding formula are these:

    Pre-digested formulas
    • Elemental
    • (Expensive)
  24. What type of feeding formula:

    Utilized with certain disease processes
    Liver failure, Kidney failure, Diabetes, Lung disease
    Specialty
  25. What are the Delivery Methods for Enteric Feedings?
    • Intermittent
    • Bolus
    • Continuous
    • Cyclic
  26. Measure Residual At least every ____ hours for continuous feeding
    4
  27. When do you Periodic flush the tube with H2O?
    • Before and after meds
    • Every 4 hours for cont. feedings
    • After each intermittent feeding
    • Anytime feeding interrupted
    • *Crush meds thoroughly
  28. What are the S/S for Hypoglycemia (less than 60 mg/dl)
    • –Hunger
    • –Shakiness
    • –Loss of concentration
    • –Pulse rapid
    • –Hypotension
    • –Cool, clammy skin
    • –Nausea
    • –Seizures
    • –Coma
  29. What are the S/S of Hyperglycemia (greater than 120 mg/dl)
    • –Weakness
    • –Thirst
    • –Flushed cheeks
    • –Dry skin and mouth
    • –Nausea and vomiting
    • –Glucosuria
    • –Fruity odor to breath (late sign)
    • –Coma

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