Card Set Information
the study of drugs and their action on living organisms.
Herbal medicine is
the type of complementary/alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders.
Prescription drugs are
designated by the federal govt as potentially harmful unless their use is supervised by a licensed health care provider.
Adverse reaction is
undesirable drug effect.
Prescription drugs also called legend drugs are
the largest category of drugs.
Prescription drugs contains
the name of the drug, the dosage, the method and times of administration, and the signature of the provider.
Nonprescription drugs are
designated by the FDA and can be obtained without a prescription.
Nonprescription drugs are
also referred to as OTC and may be purchased at pharmacy, drugstore, or supermarket.
Controlled substances are
the most carefully monitored of all drugs. Have a high potential for abuse and may cause physical or psychological dependecy.
Physical dependecy is
the habitual use of a drug, in which negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation.
Psychological dependency is
a compulsion or craving to use a substance to obtain a pleasurable experience.
The Controlled Substance Act of 1970
established a schedule or classification system for drugs with abuse potential.
Phase I involves
20 to 100 individuals who are healthy volunteers. If successful moves to Phase II.
Phase II in
which tests are performed on people who have the disease or condition for which the drug is thought to be effective. If positive then goes to Phase III.
in which the drug is given to large numbers of patients in medical research centers to provide info about adverse reactions.
Phase IV occurs after
the manufacturer places the drug on the market and put on surveillance.
The Orphan Drug Act of 1983 was passed
to encourage the development and marketing of products used to treat rare diseases.
the drug dissolves. Drugs must be soluble to be absorbed.
to activities within the body after a drug is administered. Include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
Absorption follows administration and is the process
by which a drug is made available for use in the body.
Active transport cellular energy is
used to move the drug from an area of low concentration to one of high concentration.
Passive transport no cellular energy is
used as the drug moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. small molecules diffuse across the cell membrane.
cells engulf the drug particle. cell forms a vesicle to transport the drug into the inner cell.
First-pass effect is
action by which an oral drug is absorbed and carried directly to the liver, where it is inactivated by enzymes before it enters the bloodstream.
Metabolism also called biotransformation is
the process by which the body changes a drug to a more or less active for that can be excreted.
an inactive form of the original drug.
the elimination of drugs from the body.
the time required for the body to eliminate 50% of the drug.
Onset of action is
time between administration of the drug and onset of its therapeutic effect.
Peak concentration is
when absorption rate equals the elimination rate (not always the time of peak response)
Duration of action is
the length of time the drug produces a therapeutic effect.
the study of the drug mechanisms that produce biochemical or physiologic changtes in the body.
Drug-receptor interaction is
when a drug molecule selectively joins with a reactive site- the receptor- on the surface of a cell.
a drug that binds with a receptor and stimulates the receptor to produce a therapeutic response.
An Antagonist is
a drug that joins with receptors but does not stimulate the receptors
competes with the agonists for receptor sites.
binds with receptor sites and always blocks the effects of the agonists.
The teratogen is
any substance that causes abnormal development of the fetus, often leading to severe deformation.
produces a change in the osmotic pressure in brain cells, causing a reduction in cerebral edema.
an example of a drug that acts by altering the surface of cell membrane.
the study of how people's responses to medications are variable due to individual genetic variation.
An allergic reaction is
an intermediate hypersensitivity reaction.
a foreign substance in which an individuals immune system responds to the drug.
protein substances that protect against antigens.
Anaphylactic shock is
an extremely serious allergic drug reaction that occurs shortly after the admin of a drug to which the individual is sensitive.
Angioedema (angioneurotic) is
an allergic reaction manifested by the collection of fluid in subq tissues.
Drug idiosyncrasy is
used to describe any unusual or abnormal reaction to a drug.
Drug tolerance is
used to describe a decreased response to a drug, requiring an increase in dosage to achieve desired effect.
Cumulative drug effect is
when the body is unable to metabolize and excrete one dose of a drug before the next dose is given.
Addictive drug reaction is
when the combined effect of two drugs is equal to the sum of each drug given alone.
occurs when drugs interact with each other and produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their separate actions.
the taking of numerous drugs that can potentially react with one another.