BIO test 2 important

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tuchiyama10
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BIO test 2 important
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2010-10-28 22:06:35
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  1. simple cells produced in 4 stages
    • 1. abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules
    • 2. organic monomers polymerize on hot sand, clay, or rock to form macromolecules
    • 3. molecules pack into protobionts, which are precursors to cells
    • 4. self-replicating molecules originate
  2. fossil record extends back
    3.5 billion years
  3. order of earth's history (11)
    • 1. origin 4.6 bya
    • 2. prokaryotes 3.5 bya
    • 3. atmospheric oxygen 2.7 bya
    • 4. single-celled eukaryotes 2.1 bya
    • 5. multi-cellular eukaryotes 1.5 bya
    • 6. animals
    • 7. colonization of land
    • 8. Cambrian explosion
    • 9. Permian mass extinction
    • 10. Cretaceous mass extinction
    • 11. humans
  4. facultative anaerobes
    can live with or without oxygen
  5. obligate aerobes
    require oxygen
  6. obligate anaerobes
    oxygen is toxic
  7. serial endosymbiosis
    small prokaryotes engulfed by bigger prokaryotes

    (eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes this way)
  8. rise and fall of dominant groups and biodiversity due to (3)
    • 1. adaptive radiation
    • 2. mass extinction
    • 3. continental drift
  9. gram positive
    • simple cell wall
    • thick peptidoglycan wall
    • no outer lipopolysaccharide
    • retain crystal violet
  10. gram negative
    • complex cell wall
    • thin peptidoglycan wall
    • outer lipopolysaccharide layer
    • retain safranin
    • more toxic
  11. transformation
    genotype and possibly phenotype of prokaryotic cell altered by uptake of foreign DNA from its surroundings
  12. transduction
    bacteriophages carry bacterial genes from one host cell into another
  13. conjugation
    genetic material is transferred between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined
  14. 4 modes of nutrition, energy source, carbon source
    • 1. photoautotroph, light, CO2
    • 2. chemoautotroph, inorganic material, CO2
    • 3. photoheterotroph, light, organic compounds
    • 4. chemohetereotroph, organic material, organic compounds
  15. nitrogen fixation
    converting N2 to NH3
  16. cells need nitrogen for
    synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides
  17. two important bacteria that do nitrogen fixation
    cyanobacteria, rhizobium
  18. 4 reasons prokaryotes are beneficial
    • 1. nitrogen fixation
    • 2. decomposition
    • 3. bioremediation
    • 4. symbiosis
  19. 3 ways a virus can enter a host
    • 1. transduction
    • 2. host cell endocytosis
    • 3. fusion of plasma membranes
  20. viroids
    plant pathogens consisting of RNA
  21. prion
    pathogenic proteins that cause disease in animals
  22. exons
    genes that are expressed/coded for
  23. plasmogamy
    fusion of cytoplasm but not nuclei
  24. karyogamy
    fusion of nuclei after plasmogamy
  25. cell wall
    maintain cell shape and protect the cell
  26. capsule
    allows colony formation bc it's a sticky protein layer
  27. fimbriae
    appendages that allow it to stick to a substrate
  28. sex pili
    allow the exchange of DNA
  29. flagella
    taxis
  30. nucleoid
    region where chromosome is located
  31. plasmid
    ring of self-replicating DNA w/special functions
  32. genomics
    study of whole sets of genes
  33. proteomics
    study of full protein sets encoded by genomes
  34. bioinformatics
    use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets
  35. shotgun approach
    sequencing of random DNA fragments
  36. 3-stage approach
    • 1. linkage mapping
    • 2. physical mapping
    • 3. DNA sequencing
  37. systems biology
    integrates genomics and proteomics to study the entire biological system
  38. knock-out
    determine the function of a particular DNA sequence
  39. excavata have
    • diplomonads
    • parabasalids
    • euglenozoa (kinetoplastids, euglenids)
  40. chromalveolata have
    • alveolata (dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates)
    • stramenopiles (diatoms, golden algae, brown algae, oomycetes)
  41. rhizaria have
    • forams
    • radiolarians
    • chlorarachniophytes
  42. archaeplastida have
    • red algae
    • green algae
    • land plants
  43. unikonts have
    • amoebozoan (slime molds, gymnamoebas, entamoeba)
    • opisthokont
  44. chytrid
    have flagellated spores (zoospores)
  45. zygomycetes
    bread mold; produce sturdy structure for karyogamy, meiosis
  46. glomeromycetes
    arbusculur mychorrhizae
  47. ascomycetes
    • "sac fungi"
    • sexual stages in fruiting bodies
  48. basidiomycetes
    "club fungi" extended dikaryotic stage
  49. 4 ancestral characteristics charophytes share with land plants
    • 1. rosette-shaped cellulose-synthesizing complexes
    • 2. peroxisome enzymes
    • 3. flagellated sperm
    • 4. formation of a phragmoplast
  50. 4 derived characteristics unique to land plants
    • 1. alternations of generations, multicellular dependent embryos
    • 2. walled spores produced in sporangia
    • 3. multicellular gametangia
    • 4. apical meristem
  51. 4 derived characteristics unique to seed plants
    • 1. reduced gametophytes
    • 2. heterospory
    • 3. sperm carried in pollen
    • 4. ovule develops in integument
  52. hepatophyta
    anthocerophyta
    bryophyta
    • liverworts
    • hornworts
    • mosses
  53. lycophyta
    pterophyta
    • club mosses
    • ferns

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