gkincaide

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gkincaide
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45812
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gkincaide
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2010-10-30 14:55:54
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nursing arts
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ear and eye worksheet
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  1. Define opththalmia neonatorum
    Ophthalmia neonatorum-a form of conjunctivitis usually contracted by new born in the birth canal when mom has gonorrhea. usually prevented with silver nitrate drops
  2. Define-conjunctivitis
    Conjunctivitis- pink eye
  3. Define- Enucleate
    Enucleate- removal of eyeball
  4. Define-diplopia
    diplopia-double vision
  5. strabismus
    strabismus- a condition that results in lack of parallel visual axes of the eyes; commonly called crossed eyes
  6. define- nyctalopia
    nyctalopia-night blindness
  7. Define- astigmatism
    astigmatism-a condition in which the cornea has an abnormal shape which causes blurred and distorted vision
  8. describe myopia and hyperopia
    • myopia-near sightedness
    • hypereopia-farsightedness requires reading glasses
  9. Define glaucoma. state2-3 symptoms. state instrument used to detect it
    • Glaucoma-Increased fluid pressure within the eye caused when canal of schlemm gets clogged
    • symptoms are -halos around electric light. cloudy vision. eye pain.
    • the tonometer is used to measure pressure in the eye
  10. Briefly describe papilledema
    Papilledema-accumulation of fluid in the optic nerve around the brain can cause temporary blindness
  11. Briefly describe macular degeneration
    Macular degeneration- an age related disease of the eye that occurs when the retina no longer recieves adequate blood supply
  12. descibe a cataract
    Cloudy areas that form in the lens of the eye that prevents light from reaching visual receptors
  13. In which disease is choroidal hemorrhage so common?
    Diabetic Retinopathy
  14. State the meaning of the following terms:
    Blephar
    Ambly
    Presby
    • Blephar-eye lid
    • Ambly-dimness
    • Presby-aging
  15. State the area of the brain in which vision occurs
    The occipital Lobe
  16. Trace the pathway of light traveling into the eye
    • Cornea
    • Iris
    • Lens
    • Retina
    • Optic nerve
  17. State functions of lens. State location and function of the canal of schlemm
    The function of the lens is for accommodation (focusing)

    The canal of schlemm is located in the anterior chamber and is used to clean the eye and drains aqueous humor
  18. Describe the locations of the following?
    Anterior cavity
    Anterior chamber
    Posterior chamber
    Posterior cavity
    • Anterior cavity-extends from the cornea to the lens
    • Anterior chambers-extends from the cornea to the iris
    • Posterior chambers-extends from iris to the lens
    • Posterior cavity-extends from the lens to the optic nerve
  19. Which structures do you see with the opthalmoscope?
    Retina, Optic Nerves and Blood Vessels
  20. State function of the Lacrimal Gland
    Produces tears
  21. State name of thin membrane (film) which covers eyeball and protect it
    Conjunctiva
  22. State pupil size in presence of dim light; bright lights
    In dim lights the pupils become dilated (larger)

    In bright lights the pupils become constricted (smaller)
  23. Name the opening in the center of the iris
    Pupil
  24. which structure give us the most acute vision (especially color)
    fovea centralis /Macula lutea
  25. state the functions and locations of the following structures:
    1. Retina
    2. Optic Nerve
    • 1. Retina- the inner layer of the eye;contain light sensing nerve cells called rods and cones
    • 2. Optic Nerve-consist of sensory fibers that conduct impulses fron the retina to the brain

    both are in the inner layer
  26. state the functions and locations of the following structures?
    1.Iris
    2.choroid
    1. Iris- is the colored part of the eye,made of muscular tissue that contracts and relaxes

    • 2.choroid-the middle layer of the eye, which contains most of the eye's blood vessels
    • both are found in the middle layer of the eye
  27. state the functions and locations of the following structures
    1. sclera
    2. cornea
    1.sclera- tough outermost layer(white of the eye) cover all except the front of the eye,

    2.cornea-transparent area in front of the eye that acts as a window to let light in both are found in the outer layer
  28. Explain the blind spot. Why is it called that and what is the proper term for this area?
    The blind spot is at the beginning of the optic nervewhere there are no rods and cones to transfer light to the vision center in the brain. also called the optic disk
  29. What are rods and cones? What type of vision are each responsible for?
    Rods and cones are nerve cells each named for it's shape.

    Rods- function in dim light responsible for black and white and night vision

    Cones-function best in bright light and provides sharper images (color)
  30. Where do we find Vitreous humor? What is it's function?
    • Vitreous humor is a very thick jelly like fluid in the posterior chamber of the eyeball.
    • Vitreous humor keeps the retina flat and helps to maintain the shape of the eye
  31. Where do we find aqueous humor? What is it's function?
    • Aqueous humor is a watery substance filing the space between the lens and the cornea.
    • Aqueous humor provides nutrients and bathes the structures in the anterior chamber of the eyeball
  32. What controls the shape of the lens?
    The ciliary muscle
  33. State the medical term for: 1.Focusing
    2.Bending light rays
    Focusing- accomodation

    Bending of light rays- Refraction
  34. Explain the blind spot. Why is it called that and what is the proper term for this area?
    The blind spot is an obscure field of vision where the nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve where there are no rod and cones to convert images into nerve impulses. The optic disk
  35. List the three layers of the eye?
    • 1.the outer layer
    • 2.the middle layer
    • 3.the inner layer
  36. Describe the appearance of:
    Normal eardrum
    One that is infected
    One with fluid behind it
    • Normal is shiny and beige
    • An infected eardrum is red and dull
    • An ear drum with fluid behind it usually looks inflamed (pink)Eardrum does not move well
  37. Define: Tympanotomy
    Surgical incision of the typanic membrane
  38. Define: Helix
    The folded rim of skin and cartilage around most of the outer ear
  39. Define: Otalgia
    ear pain, earache
  40. Define: frequency
    Pitch of sound- the complete fluctuations of energy per second in the form of waves
  41. Define: Decibels
    Units for measuring the relative intensity of sound on a scale from 0-130
  42. Define: Otis media
    ear infection more often in children
  43. Define: Auditory agnosia
    A disturbance in comphrehension of spoken language in the presence of otherwise intact auditory and language function. Also known as pure word deafness
  44. Define: meniere's syndrome
    A labyrinth disorder- person suffers with repeated attacks of vertigo, nausea, vomiting, disturbances in the equilibrium and tinnitus
  45. Define: stapedectomy
    Surgical removal of stapes
  46. Define: Otosclerosis
    hardening of the stapes
  47. Define: Presbycusis
    Hearing loss due to the aging process
  48. Define: Anascusis
    Total deafness
  49. define: Vertigo
    dizziness
  50. define:
    Tinnitus
    abnormal ringing in the ear
  51. State the structure of the inner ear and the function of each
    • The inner ear is responsible for interpeting and transmittings sound. the inner is a complex communicating chambers and tubes known as the labyrinth It is divided in three portions 1. semicircular canals-three loops of fluid filled tubes attached to the cochlea 2.vestible-a round open space that is the central structure within the inner ear 3. cochlea- a spiral shaped fluid filled inner ear structure lined with cilia(tiny hairs)that move when vibrated
    • they function to detect the balance/equilibrium
  52. State the structure of the middle ear and function of each
    • The middle ear- begins with the tympanic membrane-eardrum(vibrates in response to sound waves )
    • On the other side of the tympanic membrane is Ossicles(tiny bones) the malleus,incus and the stapes- begins sound conduction
  53. State the structure of the outer ear and the function
    • The outer ear consist of the pinna(external flap) the helix (the folded portion)
    • external auditory canal its function is to collect sound waves
  54. Which structures are responsible for maintenance of equilibrium? Where?
    • The vestibular labyrinth are responsible for balance and equilibrium
    • located in the inner ear
  55. State structure lined with ceruminous glands and function of cerumen
    Ceruminous glands lines the auditory canal. It produces cerumen(earwax)It prevents foriegn objects such as dirt, dust and bacteria from reaching the eardrum
  56. State the function of the eustachian tube with reference to the tympanic membrane.
    This tube help to maintain equal pressure on both sides of the eardrum(tympanic membrane)the middle ear is connected to the throat by this tube
  57. Trace soundwaves from the pinna to temporal lobe of brain
    • a. Outer ear
    • b. ear canal
    • c. eardrum
    • d. hammer,anvil,stapes
    • e. cochlea
    • f. auditory nerve to temporal lobe

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