Diseases of Gastrointestinal
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What the four signs of esophageal disease?
- 1. dysphagia
- 2. heartburn
- 3. hematemesis
- 4. melena
What is the most common but less symptomatic type of hiatal hernia?
Sliding hiatal hernia
What is the least common but more symptomatic type of hiatal hernia?
Paraesophageal rolling hernia
What is failure of the cardiac sphincter to relax causing functional obstruction of the esophagus?
What is a complication of magaesophagus?
Nocturnal regurgitation with risk of apsiration, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mallory-Weiss Syndrome is caused by what?
What is defined as longitudinal tears in the esophageal mucosa?
What is a major symptom of esophageal lacerations?
What are dilated and toruous veins itn eh submucosa of the lower esophagus?
What accounts for 50 % of cases of hematemesis?
What is the mortality rate of esophageal varices? What is the chance of a rebleed?
20-30% mortality rate, 70% chance of rebleeding
What is constriction of esophageal lumen?
What is the developmental anomaly where esophagus fails to form?
What is defined as mucosal injury with subsequent inflammation of esophagus?
What age group does esophagitis affect?
What is the most common mechanism of mucosa injury in the U.S.?
Which disease are anatomic and motor disorders?
- 1. Hiatal Hernia
- 2. Achalasia
- 3. Esophageal Lacerations
- 4. Esophageal Varices
What is a major complication of Esophagitis?
- 1. Barrett Esophagus
- 2. Bleeding
- 3. Strictures
- 4. Increased risk of adenocarcinoma of esophagus
What is the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus by metaplastic columnar epithelium containg goblet cells?
What is a major symptom of Acalasia?
What is most significant risk for Barrett Esophagus?
What is the most common pattern of esophageal carcinomas in the U.S.?
What is the most common pattern of esophageal carcinomas in the world?
Squamous Cell Carcinoma 90%
Where do adenocarcinomas occur?
distal third of esophagus
What are the two causes of chronic gastritis?
H. pylori and Autoimmunie gastritis- pernicious anemia
What is the morphology of chronic gastritis?
Chronic inflammation leading to mucosal atrophy and epithelial intestial hyperplasia
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