Diseases of Gastrointestinal

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Diseases of Gastrointestinal
2010-10-29 00:35:16
Loma Linda Pathology II Gastrointestinal Diseases

Diseases of Gastrointestinal Esophagus through colon
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  1. What the four signs of esophageal disease?
    • 1. dysphagia
    • 2. heartburn
    • 3. hematemesis
    • 4. melena
  2. What is the most common but less symptomatic type of hiatal hernia?
    Sliding hiatal hernia
  3. What is the least common but more symptomatic type of hiatal hernia?
    Paraesophageal rolling hernia
  4. What is failure of the cardiac sphincter to relax causing functional obstruction of the esophagus?
  5. What is a complication of magaesophagus?
    Nocturnal regurgitation with risk of apsiration, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  6. Mallory-Weiss Syndrome is caused by what?
    Severe vomiting
  7. What is defined as longitudinal tears in the esophageal mucosa?
    Esophageal Lacerations?
  8. What is a major symptom of esophageal lacerations?
  9. What are dilated and toruous veins itn eh submucosa of the lower esophagus?
    Esophageal varices
  10. What accounts for 50 % of cases of hematemesis?
    Esophageal varices
  11. What is the mortality rate of esophageal varices? What is the chance of a rebleed?
    20-30% mortality rate, 70% chance of rebleeding
  12. What is constriction of esophageal lumen?
  13. What is the developmental anomaly where esophagus fails to form?
  14. What is defined as mucosal injury with subsequent inflammation of esophagus?
  15. What age group does esophagitis affect?
    Middle-aged adults
  16. What is the most common mechanism of mucosa injury in the U.S.?
    Chronic Gastritis
  17. Which disease are anatomic and motor disorders?
    • 1. Hiatal Hernia
    • 2. Achalasia
    • 3. Esophageal Lacerations
    • 4. Esophageal Varices
  18. What is a major complication of Esophagitis?
    • 1. Barrett Esophagus
    • 2. Bleeding
    • 3. Strictures
    • 4. Increased risk of adenocarcinoma of esophagus
  19. What is the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus by metaplastic columnar epithelium containg goblet cells?
    Barret Esophagus
  20. What is a major symptom of Acalasia?
  21. What is most significant risk for Barrett Esophagus?
    30-40% risk
  22. What is the most common pattern of esophageal carcinomas in the U.S.?
  23. What is the most common pattern of esophageal carcinomas in the world?
    Squamous Cell Carcinoma 90%
  24. Where do adenocarcinomas occur?
    distal third of esophagus
  25. What are the two causes of chronic gastritis?
    H. pylori and Autoimmunie gastritis- pernicious anemia
  26. What is the morphology of chronic gastritis?
    Chronic inflammation leading to mucosal atrophy and epithelial intestial hyperplasia