ANT 325M

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ANT 325M
2010-10-29 00:43:51

Exam 2
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  1. Synchrony between the verbal and nonverbal streams of a speaker's language behavior--is called: a) interactional synchrony
    b) self
  2. In the film Do You Speak American: Out West, Cliff Nass said that hearing a mismatch between one's voice (including accent) and one's physical appearance leads
    d) less trust
  3. One of several definitions of context we have discussed is
    b) everything necessary to understand a message
  4. In the film American Tongues it was maintained that a person's accent is
    b) mostly phonological
  5. Which of the following could not be considered a contextual component for an ethnography of communication?
    a) schismogenesis
  6. The film American Tongues illustrated the fact that there are
    c) people in Boston who exploit their accents mercilessly and to their advantage
  7. It seems likely that Hymes is correct when he concludes that:
    b) languages are all equally suited to full expression of what the society needs to express
  8. American Tongues showed that
    a) in times of stress one reverts to forms of speech learned in the early teens.
  9. Transition to sentient speech in some hypothetical pre-hominid ancestor must have involved
    • b) gradual loss of emotional loading in vocal messages
    • d) gradual increase in vocal coding of contextual variables
    • e) b & d
  10. Vocatives are
    b) signs that are supposed to get the attention of an individua
  11. Locating contextual items without actually naming them is done by members of a speech category called
    a) deictics
  12. Compared to non-autonomous speech, autonomous speech is
    • a) more syntactically complex
    • b) more linguistically explicit
    • c) less dependent on paralinguistic and kinesic signals
    • d) less dependent on background information possessed by the hearer
    • e) all of the above
  13. Non-autonomous speech is like Bernstein's
    d) restricted code
  14. The greater the psychological difference, or distance, between communicating individuals, the greater the need for
    b) autonomous speech
  15. The evolution of human societies has been in the direction of
    • a) language diversification
    • b) more people
    • c) larger speech communities
    • d) increasing social differentiation
    • e) increasing complexity
    • f) autonomous symbol systems
    • g) all of the above
  16. The following are demonstrable characteristics of form and function in language:
    • a) form follows function
    • b) a variety of forms can serve the same function
    • c) the same form can serve a variety of functions
    • d) On occasion use of a form for one function excludes its use for certain others
    • g) b, c & d
  17. Which of the following correlates meaningfully with segmentation of the speech community and also with different contextual elements?
    c) linguistic variation
  18. Which of the following could be considered part of the communicative context of a 'text' ? enna massive
    • a) setting & Scene
    • b) participants
    • c) ends
    • d) act sequence
    • e) key
    • f) norms
    • g) all of the above
  19. Settings, as distinct from context, can:
    • a) help define events, invoking some behaviors, restricting others
    • b) can be classified along a continuum of formality
    • f) a & b
  20. The following characteristics of formality are apparently universal:
    • a) increased structuring
    • b) consistency of co-occurrence choices
    • f) a & b
  21. Back-channel cues [examples from notes: 'yeah', 'right,' 'uh-huh'] are
    d) signals of active listenership
  22. Depending on the language, placement of values along dimensions of power and of solidarity have been found in:
    • d) terms of address
    • e) pronominal usage
    • f) honorifics
    • h) d, e, & f
  23. Reciprocal use of TLN or FN in the US references the social dimension of
    c) solidarity
  24. Non-reciprocal use of TLN or FN in the US references the social dimension of
    a) power
  25. Use of first name in US address underlyingly means
    a) either intimacy or condescension
  26. Use of TLN in US address underlyingly means:
    d) deference or distance
  27. The pronouns of power and solidarity have been referenced in this class as:
    b) T & V
  28. Reciprocal use of the 2nd person pronoun in European languages stresses:
    c) equality of participants
  29. Non-reciprocal use of the 2nd person pronoun in Romance languages and China stresses:
    f) none of the above [inequality, condescension, power
  30. John Austin has made a 3 way distinction among utterances based on the notion that the speech act accomplishes goals. He has identified the following kinds of acts:
    c) locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary
  31. John Austin classified speech acts in terms of their purpose and effect. With respect to the locutionary act, the focus is on
    b) exactly what is said
  32. An illocutionary act is the act performed in saying something; here the focus is on:
    a) the speaker's intentions
  33. Broadcast transmission and directional reception of messages, according to Hockett is characteristic of:
    c) most animals
  34. In pointing to rapid fading as a design feature in some communication systems, Hockett is excluding:
    b) animal tracks, spoors, and chemical signs in communication
  35. Hockett refers to the fact that in some communicative systems new linguistic messages are coined freely and can be understood in context. He names this design feature:
    e) openness (productivity)
  36. Hockett singles out the ability in a communicative system of meaningless elements to pattern and in combination to form meaningful messages as important in human language. He calls this:
    c) duality of patterning
  37. Hockett claims that non-human animals do not appear to be capable of transmitting information about their own or other systems of communication, and calls the ability to do so:
    d) reflexiveness
  38. Apologies are
    b) linguistic routines
  39. In all situations, speakers have options of ways to express themselves. Their choices in expression reveal underlying cultural models of
    • a) behavior
    • b) rights
    • c) obligations
    • g) a, b & c
  40. In conversation analysis an adjacency pair is considered to be:
    b) linked utterances based on turn taking
  41. Greetings have been said to function
    • a) to mark the transition to a condition of increased access
    • b) to acknowledge the presence of others
    • c) to begin communicative interactions
    • d) to establish a shared perceptual field
    • e) to identify interlocutor as a distinct being worth recognizing
    • f) all of the above
  42. Greetings, compliments, and condolences can all be thought of as
    • a) routines
    • b) creators of social solidarity
    • c) negotiators of social solidarity
    • d) face threat acts
    • h) a-d
  43. Solicitudes tend to
    • c) be formulaic
    • d) use imperatives
    • e) convey only temporary good wishes to the addressee
    • g) c, d & e
  44. H.P. Grice articulated four important maxims regarding conversational ideals that can be summarized as maxims of
    a) quantity, quality, relevance, and manner
  45. H.P. Grice felt that conversational norms are best served by
    c) saying neither too much nor too little
  46. Departures from Grice's norms are
    • a) marked
    • b) often noted by the speaker prior to making the departure
    • c) mitigated by the speaker to blunt the force of the departure
    • d) often signaled by the word 'but'
    • g) a-d
  47. Robin Lakoff formulated two rules of pragmatic competence:
    d) be clear and be polite
  48. Lakoff suggests that when rules of pragmatic competence conflict,
    a) politeness usually supersedes clarity
  49. Lakoff opines that in most informal conversations
    a) actual communication of important ideas is secondary to reaffirming and strengthening relationships
  50. To Brown and Levinson politeness is concern with face, which involves
    • a) an individual's self-esteem
    • b) the public image every person wants to claim for him/herself
    • c) the desire to be approved or respected
    • d) the desire to be unimpeded in one's actions
    • e) the desire not to be imposed upon
    • f) all of the above
  51. Brown and Levinson suggest that in mitigation of a face threat act,
    • a) negative face politeness provides greater redress than positive face
    • d) positive face politeness provides greater mitigation than off-record politeness
    • g) a & d
  52. Requests, orders, offers, dares, and expressions of anger are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to
    c) hearer's negative face
  53. Criticism, accusation, insults, contradictions, and boasts are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to
    a) hearer's positive face
  54. Thanking, accepting offers, making unwilling promises are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to
    b) speakers negative face
  55. Apologies, confessions, and admissions of responsibility are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to
    d) speakers positive face
  56. Three social factors for speaker selection of linguistic mechanism to accomplish an FTA include
    c) power, solidarity, and degree of imposition entailed by FTA
  57. A speech community is a group of people who:
    • a) interact by means of speech
    • b) share knowledge of the rules for conduct and interpretation of speech
    • c) share a set of social attitudes towards their own and others language and speech
    • d) all of the above
  58. In the US, weak social networks predominate among
    b) the middle class
  59. Close-knit social networks are more typical of
    c) lower-class communities
  60. Social distinctions among community members influence
    • a) the production of speech
    • b) the interpretation of speech
    • c) the evaluation of speech
    • f) a, b & c
  61. Social class systems are based on:
    • a) conflict
    • e) differentiation
    • f) inequality
    • i) a, e & f
  62. In the US, class:
    • a) is reflected in language use
    • b) membership is potentially fluid and fluctuating
    • c) is reinforced by language use
    • d) is structured in terms of economic, political, and social relations
    • g) a-d
  63. William Labov studied postvocalic r usage in
    c) New York City
  64. From his study of postvocalic r, Labov concluded that this variable is:
    • a) a linguistic marker of social stratification
    • d) statistically more prominent in the speech of higher classes
    • f) a and d
  65. In his study of postvocalic r use in three department stores, Labov assumed that:
    a) workers identified with the prestige of their employers and customers
  66. Labov concluded that crossover behavior is
    • b) a reliable indicator of linguistic change
    • e) evidence of linguistic insecurity
    • g) b & e
  67. Labov found that
    c) class was a significant factor in postvocalic r use
  68. Labov found varying amounts of -r pronunciation, the largest amount occurring in
    c) minimal pairs
  69. Labov has conducted studies indicating that members of all classes increase their use of -r as context focused more attention on pronunciation, showing that they are aware of the same general norm giving value to -r pronouncing
    a) true
  70. Labov showed that in speech in the most careful contexts, members of the second highest class use more -r than do members of the highest group, demonstrating that LowerMiddleClass speakers are most sensitive about negative evaluations of their own speech and most desirous of achieving prestige norms. This illustrates the phenomenon that Labov called
    c) crossing over
  71. "The correlate of regular stratification of a sociolinguistic variable in behavior is uniform agreement in subjective reactions towards that variable" This statement could have been made by
    c) William Labov
  72. In England Peter Trudgill studied the use of phonological variables and found that, for all the features studied, higher class speakers use more non-standard forms, meaning that they use fewer standard pronunciations
    b) false--they use fewer non-standard forms]
  73. In Scotland, Ronald Macauley, in a study of 5 phonological features, concluded that
    • a) speaker use of prestige variants was consistently ranked with their occupational stratification
    • b) women employed more prestige pronunciations than men of their age group
    • e) a and b
  74. One of the surprising findings of Jacquelyn Lindenfeld is that speakers are rarely able to manipulate their use of language in order to emphasize their class identity in different speech situations
    b) false ["Showed that speakers can manipulate their use of language in order to emphasize or de-emphasize their class identity in different speech situations."]
  75. Basil Bernstein identified a dichotomy of speech styles that he labeled
    b) elaborated and restricted
  76. According to Bernstein,
    • a) because members of different social classes use different modes of expression, they develop different patterns of thought and thus understand their world in different ways
    • b) one of the effects of the class system is to limit access to elaborated codes
    • c) use of explicit references in elaborated codes can allow speakers to think about meanings and relationships separate from their immediate context, potentially permitting them to enter into a reflexive relationship to the social order
    • d) all of the above
  77. What has been called the elaborated code is
    • a) used by the middle class
    • b) expresses universalistic meanings using nouns, adjectives and verbs with explicit referents
    • c) relies less on presuppositions
    • h) a, b & c
  78. African American Vernacular English is, according to Labov:
    c) a subsystem of English with a distinct set of phonological and syntactic rules that are now aligned in many ways with the rules of other dialects of English
  79. AAVE [African American Vernacular English ] exhibits
    • a) a highly elaborated aspect system, quite different from other dialects of English
    • b) a tendency to delete postvocalic r
    • c) a tendency to delete the copula wherever it can be contracted in Standard English
    • d) a tendency to reduce word final consonant clusters
    • i) a , b, c & d
  80. In AAVE
    b) women tend to retain the copula with greater frequency than men
  81. John Rickford in his article Suite for Ebony and Phonics said that
    b) all languages have dialects
  82. Marcyliena Morgan maintains that Hip hop culture involves youth socialization that
    b) explicitly addresses racism, sexism, capitalism, and morality
  83. There are numerous speech differences between men and women in our society. They are
    • c) mostly in the form of statistical variables
    • d) generally based on gender preference rather than gender exclusive speech differences
    • j) c & d
  84. Mock Spanish as Rusty Barrett characterizes it
    • a) has semantic pejoration of Spanish words
    • b) uses obscene Spanish in place of English equivalents
    • d) overuses Spanish grammatical elements
    • e) has hyper Anglicization (parodic pronunciation)
    • h) a, b, d & e
  85. Females in our society often blunt a direct statement by means of
    • c) hedge words
    • d) tag questions
    • i) c & d
  86. The use of such devices as tag questions and hedge words
    b) can undermine the speaker's appearance of competence and confidence
  87. It is probably a universal fact that in all cultures
    • a) gender is a social construct
    • b) there are differences in how men and women communicate
    • c) the genders are socially distinguished
    • d) wherever societal distinctions are made among community members, linguistic and stylistic variations arise to reflect and reinforce existing segmentation
    • e) all of the above
  88. In American English
    • a) few if any patterns are exclusive to either gender
    • b) the inventory of sounds for men and women is the same, but there are different frequencies with which men and women use particular sounds
    • c) John Fischer found gender related patterns in the pronunciation of the final consonant in 'fishing'
    • d) John Fischer found formality related patterns in the pronunciation of the final consonant in 'fishing'
    • e) all of the above
  89. Several studies show women's greater use of standard pronunciations, and quicker and more marked style shifting to the standard in increasingly formal speech contexts. One explanation says this is due to
    c) women's linguistic insecurity reflecting their social insecurity in a hierarchical system of gender in which they are relegated to second place
  90. When Trudgill asked them about their pronunciation, women tended to claim greater use of standard pronunciation than actually occurred in their speech whereas men tended to claim greater use of the nonstandard than actually occurred in their speech. Trudgill explained this saying that
    • a) covert prestige is given to male behavior that rejects the standard
    • b) overt prestige is given to female behavior that adopts the standard
    • f) a & b
  91. In general, women use
    • a) more dynamic intonational contours than do men
    • b) a wider range of pitches within their repertory than do men
    • c) a more rapid and marked shift in volume and velocity than do men
    • d) all of the above
  92. Dynamic intonational patterns are interpreted by American English speakers as indicating
    b) emotionality and natural impulses
  93. According to some, women and men are not viewed simply as different with respect to language behavior; instead, women's behavior is
    • a) negatively evaluated in relation to male norms
    • b) viewed as unstable and unpredictable
    • e) a & b
  94. Women's frequent changes in pitch and volume may serve the important function of attracting and holding the listener's attention. Women may need this device more than men because
    • c) their relative powerlessness in a male dominated society
    • d) their frequent contact with young children who are not yet socialized to attend reliably to verbal signals
    • g) c & d
  95. Because rising pitch is an indicator of a question in American English, some linguists such as Robin Lakoff believe that when women use rising pitches, they are interpreted as
    • b) hesitant
    • c) uncertain
    • d) lacking assertiveness
    • h) b, c & d
  96. Regarding tag questions it has been found that
    • a) women more often use tags for addressee-oriented goals
    • b) men more often use tags for speaker-oriented goals
    • f) a & b
  97. Men and women sometimes employ linguistic styles characterized by indecisive, imprecise, or mitigated speech. These traits are perceived to be more typical of women. They are, in actuality,
    • b) more likely to be used by women (given contextual similarities)
    • c) more likely to be used by people of either gender in subordinate roles
    • f) b & c
  98. A common cultural stereotype describes women as being more talkative than men
    • b) an experiment in describing pictures showed men talking on average four times long as women
    • c) at a faculty meeting men were clocked speaking up to four times as long as women
    • g) b & c
  99. In Yana, a California Indian language Sapir identified men's speech and women's speech.
    • a) men's speech is only used by men, and only to other men
    • b) women's speech is used by women to men and women and by men to women
    • c) men's speech is marked with respect to women's speech in most cases
    • d) men's speech uses more elaborate forms than that of women
    • g) a-d
  100. Falsetto voice is employed as a respect device used by Carib women while raised pitch is used as a respect device by men.
    b) false [its actually the Tzeltal culture]
  101. Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico employ a kind of whistle speech that women can understand but that only men use.
    a) true [
  102. The nerd according to Mary Bucholtz is
    • a) ideologically gendered and racialized
    • d) characterized by a set of practices, stances, and engagements
    • e) markedly hyperwhite
    • f) a, d & e
  103. In Japanese some of the gender exclusive differences in speech reflect a message of social inequality, unlike Chukchee
    a) true
  104. In Chiquita , a Bolivian indigenous language, in women's speech all nouns are treated the same, but in men's speech nouns divided into two classes marked morphologically.
    • a) one class consists of nouns referring to men and supernatural beings
    • c) men's speech is employed by men only in speaking to other men
    • d) women never use men's speech
    • e) men never address women with men's speech
    • g) a, c, d & e
  105. Bodine suggests that Chiquita men have tried to use language to symbolically elevate themselves, but Chiquita women have refused to go along with it.
    a) true
  106. The film To Make the Balance is about
    b) how justice is officially administered in a Mexican village
  107. The film Brain Sex singled out the following as particularly important to gender
    c) hormones
  108. Gender exclusive patterns of speech in languages of the world generally involve either a small number of sounds, a few morphological markers, or a handful of words. No exclusive differences in sentence construction have been reported. Nevertheless, gender exclusive forms have great social significance, reflecting and reinforcing cultural models of gender distinctions.
    a) true
  109. The film Brain Sex claims that there is such a thing as
    a) a person with only one x chromosome
  110. In many cultures, where polite speech is most typical of women (e.g. American/Anglo societies, Japan), it is interpreted as a signal of deference and lower status. However, in other societies (e.g. Java), polite speech (including humility) is manipulated to convey messages of power and superiority
    a) true
  111. Malagasy (Madagascar) has two speech styles. One is used in rituals and formal secular situation. This one is
    • a) generally only used by men
    • c) indirect of reference
    • d) referred to as kabary
    • h) a, c & d
  112. In Madagascar, where Malagasy is spoken,
    • a) women dominate situations where directness is called for
    • b) men dominate situations where indirectness is desirable
    • e) a & b
  113. The film Brain Sex claimed that
    b) PMS could induce a woman to commit suicide
  114. The Kuna of Panama have a basically egalitarian society according to Joel Sherzer.
    • a) economic and social responsibilities of women and men are seen as distinct, yet complementary and harmonious
    • b) men supply food and women perform domestic labor
    • c) the genders have different speech genres
    • g) a, b & c
  115. Among the Kuna, according to Sherzer, each gender has occasion to employ elaborate rhetorical styles, replete with metaphor and symbolic allusions, and each uses chanting and rhythmic patterns or tunes in certain contexts, and both men and women speak directly and confidently when voicing their opinions.
    a) true
  116. The Subanun drinking encounter provides a structured setting for
    d) defining, extending, and manipulating one's social relationships through the use of speech
  117. Subanun beer is drunk
    c) through bamboo straws
  118. Discourse at a Subanun festive gathering
    • a) is focused on drinking a kind of beer [a fermented beverage]
    • b) proceeds in three stages
    • c) includes invitation, gossip, deliberation, and verbal art display
    • d) is important to a male's role in the society
    • e) all of the above
  119. In "Greetings in the Desert" Grimshaw and Youssef discuss greetings of
    c) Tuaregs
  120. In researching "Greetings in the Desert" the authors were hoping to
    c) propose some universals about greetings
  121. The following pertain(s) to the desert dwellers studied by Grimshaw and Youssef
    • a) news and companionship are highly valued in the wilderness
    • b) strangers may be or become enemies
    • c) sensitivity to cues of identity has high survival value
    • d) adult males must learn complex rules for the interpretation of verbal and other behaviors in the accomplishment of greetings and information exchange
    • e) all of the above
  122. William Labov says linguists believe
    • c) inner city children don't necessarily have inferior mothers, language, or experience, but language and perhaps other aspects of inner city life are different from the standard anglo classroom culture and are not always properly understood by teachers and psychologists
    • d) we must begin to adapt our school system to the language and learning styles of the majority in the inner-city schools
    • f) c & d
  123. William Labov takes educational psychologists to task for their ignorance of his article on Black intelligence
    a) true
  124. According to Keenan,
    • a) only men are expected to cultivate kabary speech
    • b) Women use one kind of power and men another
    • c) women are associated with direct criticism and haggling in markets tending to be direct and open in manner
    • d) men tend to conduct themselves with discretion and subtlety
    • e) all of the above