Nutrition Exam 2

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Nutrition Exam 2
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2010-10-29 12:56:07
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Nutrition Exam 2
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  1. simple carbohydrate
    • sugars
    • mono/disaccharides
  2. complex carbohydrate
    • starches and fibers
    • oligo/polysaccharides
  3. what r the 3 monosaccharides?
    glucose, fructose (sweetest), and galactose (milk)
  4. examples of disaccharides
    sucrose, maltose, lactose
  5. condensation
    chemical rxn that links 2 monosaccharides together to produce a disaccharide; ex. water
  6. hydrolysis
    rxn that uses water to split a disaccharide into 2 monosaccharides
  7. examples of polysaccharides
    glycogen, starches, fiber
  8. purpose of glycogen
    how the human body stores CHO
  9. purpose of starch
    form used by plants to store glucose; found in starchy veggies and grains
  10. dietary fiber
    natural structures found in all plants that CANNOT be digested by human enzymes
  11. 2 types of dietary fibers
    soluble and insoluble
  12. soluble fiber
    dietary fibers that dissolve in water & can be digested by bacteria in the colon
  13. insoluble fiber
    dietary fiber that CANNOT be dissolved in water & r less readily fermented
  14. funcitional fiber
    fibers that have been extracted from plants or manufactured & added to products for health benefits
  15. total fiber =
    dietary fiber + functional fiber
  16. RDA for CHO
    • 45%-65% total daily energy intake
    • 130 g/day
  17. RDA for fiber
    • 25 g
    • men 38 g
  18. salivary amylase
    hydrolyzes starches into smaller polysaccharides and maltose
  19. where does CHO digestion begin? with which enzyme?
    in the mouth w/salivary amylase
  20. what happens in stomach during CHO digestion?
    low pH deactivates salivary amylase
  21. what enzymes r on outer membrane of intestinal cells?
    sucrase, maltase, and lactase
  22. what happens in SI during CHO digestion?
    • entered thru pancreatic duct
    • splits disaccharides into monosaccharides
  23. what is the end product of CHO digestion?
    monosaccharides
  24. what happens in LI during CHO digestion?
    fermentation of fibers by intestinal bacteria; some fermentation produces gas &/ fatty acids
  25. where can glycogen be found?
    liver and muscle
  26. glycolysis
    breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
  27. gluconeogenesis
    the making of glucose in the body from non-CHO sources (AAs or ketones)
  28. 2 hormones in blood glucose homeostasis
    insulin and glucagon
  29. funx of CHO
    energy, homeostasis, etc.
  30. insulin
    secreted from pancreas Beta cells in response to an increase in blood sugar; allows for glucose to be taken up by the cells
  31. glucagon
    secreted from pancreas Alpha cells in response to a decrease in blood sugar; elicits the release of glucose from glycogen stores
  32. epinephrine on homeostasis
    "fight or flight" hormone that also triggers glucose release

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