Cardiology cards

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Cardiology cards
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medic11 cardiology cards
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  1. What are the 2 parts of the pericardium & their locations?
    • Visceral (epicardium) – inner
    • Parietal – outer, fibrous layer
  2. The 2 main heart sounds are what?
    • S1 – “lubb” caused by the closing of the AV valves
    • S2 – “dupp” Caused by the closing of the SL valves
  3. The R coronary artery branches into what 2 parts?
    • Posterior Descending Artery
    • Marginal Artery
  4. The left coronary artery branches into what 2 parts?
    • Left anterior descending
    • Left circumflex Artery
  5. Give 5 facts about the L anterior descending.
    • Originates on left side of aorta
    • “widow maker” associated w/sudden death
    • Part of R ventricle
    • Intraventricular septal artery (septum)
  6. Give 2 facts about the L circumflex artery
    • Lateral wall of L ventricle
    • Posterior wall of L ventricle
  7. Define cardiac cycle
    Period of time fr end of 1 contraction to the end of the next
  8. Define diastole.
    Period of time when myocardium is relaxed & cardiac filling & coronary perfusioni occur
  9. Define systole.
    Period of cardiac cycle when myocardium is contracting
  10. What is “atrial kick?”
    When the atria contract filling ventricles to capacity. This kick accounts for 30% of output
  11. Define stroke volume & what is it equal too?
    • Amt of blood ejected fr 1 ventricle w/each heart beat usually 60-100ml
    • SV = HR x Cardiac output
  12. Define preload.
    Pressure in filled ventricle @ end of diastole
  13. Define Frank Starling Law & what drug effects it.
    • Greater the vol of blood in heart during diastole causing myocardial muscle stretch, the more forceful the contraction
    • Dopamine works directly on this principle
  14. What is afterload?
    Resistance against which ventricle must contract to eject blood
  15. If we increase peripheral vascular resistance we will ____ stroke vol.
    Decrease
  16. Decreasing peripheral vascular resistance will ____ stroke vol?
    Increase
  17. Define venous return.
    Amt of blood flowing into R atrium each min fr systemic circulation
  18. What is cardiac output?
    Amt of blood pumped each minute by the heart
  19. How many ml in an avg stroke vol?
    70
  20. Define systemic vascular resistance.
    Resistance to the flow of blood determined by vessel diameter & tone
  21. The sympathetic nervous sys influences both the atria & ventricles. T or F
    True
  22. The parasympathetic nervous sys primarily influences what part of the heart?
    Atria
  23. Where are alpha receptors in the heart?
    Located in peripheral blood vessels & responsible for vasoconstriction
  24. Where are Beta 1 receptors located?
    Primarily in the heart to increase HR & contractility
  25. Where are Beta 2 receptors located?
    Lungs & peripheral blood vessels to cause bronchodilation & peripheral vasodilation
  26. What is cardiac excitability?
    The ability of cardiac muscle cells to respond to an external stimulus (chemical, electrical, mechanical
  27. What is cardiac conductivity?
    The ability of cardiac cells to receive an elec stimulus & conduct that impulse to an adjacent cell
  28. What is cardiac autiomaticity?
    Ability of cardiac pacemaker cells lto spontaneously initiate an elec impulse
  29. What is cardiac contractility?
    Ability of cardiac cells to shorten causing muscle contraction in response to electrical stimulus
  30. Normal ejection fraction is greater than ____ %.
    50
  31. The avg cardiac stroke vol is ____?
    70 ml
  32. The resistance against which the ventricle must pump blood is called what?
    Peripheral vascular resistance
  33. The formula for cardiac output is _______?
    Stroke vol (ml) x HR
  34. The formula for BP is _____?
    Cardiac output x systemic vascular resistance
  35. What type of receptors cause bronchodilation & peripheral vasodilation?
    Baroreceptors
  36. Na's major role in the cardiac cell is ____?
    Depolarization
  37. Resting membrane potential is measures @ around ____ mV.
    - 70
  38. The Na/K exchange pump exchanges ____ Na for every ____ K taken into the cell
    • 3 Na out
    • 2 K in
  39. What are ions?
    Atom or grp of atoms w/ an elec charge
  40. What is diffusion?
    Movement of ions fr high concentration to area of low concenttration
  41. What is a gradient?
    A force which drives diffusion
  42. When Na rushes into a cell rapidly & the inside of the cell is more pos tan the outside this is called ____?
    Depolarization
  43. How many P waves must be noted in order for a rhythm to be considered to have a wandering pacemaker?
    3
  44. When a wandering atrial pacemaker rhythm >100 bpm is considered to be what?
    Multifocal Atrial Tach
  45. The term that applies to any tachycardic rhythm originating above the ventricle is called ____?
    Supraventricular
  46. What are the 6 "H"s for reversible causes?
    • Hydrogen Ion
    • Hypovolemia
    • Hypoxia
    • Hypothermia
    • Hypo/hyper kalemia
    • Hypo/hyper glycemia
  47. What are the 6 T reversible causes?
    • Thromboembolism
    • Trauma
    • Toxins/tablets
    • Tension pneumo
    • Tamponade (AMI)
    • Cardiac tamponade
  48. Name the bipolar leads.
    I, II, III
  49. What is the proper placement of the V5 lead?
    5th intercostal anterior axillary
  50. What happens -- physically -- when depolarization occurs?
    Muscle contraction
  51. Ability of cardiac pacemaker cells to spontaneously initiate an electrical impulse is called?
    Automaticity
  52. A "P" wave represents what actions of the heart?
    Atrial depolarization and contraction
  53. The QRS represents what 2 actions of the heart?
    Ventricular depolarization and contraction
  54. The "T" wave represents what action of the heart?
    Repolarization
  55. What are the 2 valves that lie between the atria?
    Tricuspid and Mitral
  56. What level of the heart do the terminal ends of the purkinje Fibers lay?
    Spread out beneath the endocardium
  57. Ventricular conduction is composed of purkinje fibers that use fast moving ____ ions for conduction.
    Na
  58. What are the 2 phases of ventricular repolarization & how are they represented on EKG?
    • Plateau Phase & Rapid Phase
    • ST segment & T wave
  59. Ventricualr systole begins @ the _____ & persists until the end of the ____ wave.
    • QRS
    • T Wave
  60. Pt's w/long QT syndrome are in danger of developing _____?
    Rapid ventricular Rhythms
  61. The release of free Ca++ ions into the interior of the myocytes produce myocardial ____?
    Contraction
  62. Following depolarization, repolarization is due to the controlled outflow of ____ fr the myocytes.
    CA ions
  63. What neurotransmitter activates the heart's B1 adrenergic receptors?
    NorEpi
  64. Junctional foci have an inherent rate of ____ to ____.
    40 to 60
  65. Ventricular foci have an inherent rate of ____ to ____.
    20-40
  66. Lead V6 is placed where?
    5th intercostal mid axillary
  67. If an impulse is moving toward a lead it will have a ____ deflection.
    Positive
  68. Phase II of the cardiac action potential is?
    Plateau
  69. Phase I of a cardiac action potential is?
    Early repolarization
  70. The left anterior descending artery supplies which wall of the heart?
    Anterior Wall
  71. What is the paper speed on the EKG?
    25 mm/sec
  72. The left circumflex artery supplies which 2 walls of the heart?
    Lateral Wall & Septum
  73. What is the period of time fr the end of 1 contraction to the end of the next is called?
    Cardiac cycle
  74. The PR interval measures what?
    Time for impulse to travel fr atria to ventricles
  75. Atrial kick accounts for what % of cardiac output?
    30%
  76. Lead V3 is placed where?
    Halfway between leads V2 & V4
  77. V4R lead placement is where?
    V4 lead lead moved to right side, 5th intercostal, mid clavicular
  78. What is the compensatory pause?
    Absence of an appropriate beat after a PVC as the ventricles repolarize
  79. Describe bigeminy.
    A rhythm of 1 NS beat followed by an ectopic one
  80. Which is worse for an ectopic beat to fall on? The absolute refractory period or the relative refractory period?
    Relative refractory period
  81. What lead looks at the high lateral wall?
    aVL
  82. What lead looks at the base of the heart & can help diagnose a TCA OD?
    aVR
  83. What is the criteria for a posterior hemiblock?
    • Left axis deviation
    • Sm "Q" in lead 3
    • Big "R" in lead 1
  84. A left bundle branch has a ____ deflection b/f the J point.
    Downward (negative)
  85. An extreme right axis and upright V1 equals ____.
    V Tach
  86. An RSR pattern b/f the J point is what?
    RBBB
  87. Two hemiblocks are also called what?
    Bifasicular Block
  88. Which left hemibock has the highest mortality rate?
    Posterior Hemiblock
  89. What rate determines rapid ventricular response in A Fib? A Flutter?
    • Afib = >100 bpm
    • A flutter = 200-250
  90. What is the deviation allowed in the R-R for a rhythm to still be regular?
    0.06 sec
  91. What is a wandering atrial pacemaker w/a rate over 100 called?
    Multi focal A Tach
  92. What is the preferred drug w/dosage for Torsades?
    Mag Sulfate @ 1-2 g IV drip over 10 minutes
  93. Your pt is in an idioventricular rhythm, pale, diaphoretic, & unconscious. Do what?
    PACE !
  94. What are five drugs for treating V Fib?
    • Lidocaine
    • Amiodarone
    • Procainamide
    • Vasopressin
    • Bretyllium
  95. How does pericarditis present on an ECG?
    • The ST segment is usually flat or concave
    • Entire T may be elevated off baseline
  96. What is the effect of digitalis on an ECG?
    Depressed ST segment looking like a scoop
  97. How does hyperkalemia present on and ECG?
    W/ tall peaked T waves

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