Physical Science Chapter 9

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barbarad
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45943
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Physical Science Chapter 9
Updated:
2010-10-29 14:14:20
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Thermodynamics vocabulary
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vocabulary for Physical Science Chapter 9
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  1. an obsolete model of heat that considered heat a material fluid that flowed from hot to cold objects
    caloric theory
  2. the sum of all forms of particle energy in a substance
    internal energy
  3. a piston engine containing a working gas that is transferred between hot and cold heat exchangers to move the pistons. The source of heat comes from outside the engine.
    Stirling engine
  4. a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance; the hotness or coldness of an object, measured in degrees.
    temperature
  5. dimensional unit of temperature whose magnitude depends on which system is being used
    degree
  6. an instrument that uses a thermometric property to measure and display temperature
    thermometer
  7. any property of matter that varies in proportion to changes in temperature
    thermometric property
  8. fixed, precise, and easily reproducible values in a dimension used to calibrate a measuring scale
    in Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales they are the boiling and freezing points of pure water at 1 atm of pressure
    fiducial point
  9. a temperature scale with fiducial points at the freezing point (32 degrees) and the boiling point (212 degrees) of pure water at 1 atm of pressure
    Fahrenheit scale
  10. a temperature scale with fiducial points at the freezing point (0 degrees) and the boiling point (100 degrees) of pure water at 1 atm of pressure
    Celsius scale
  11. the pressure and temperature conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance simultaneously exist in a stable condition
    triple point
  12. the absolute temperature scale, whose theoretical zero point is absolute zero. Its single fiducial point is the triple point of pure water (273.16 K)
    One Kelvin is the same size unit as one degree Celsius
    Kelvin scale
  13. a thermal property of most materials in which length or volume increase in proportion with increasing temperature
    thermal expansion
  14. a quantity of thermal energy that flows from one system to another
    heat (Q)
  15. law stating that every natural process proceeds toward a condition of lowest usable energy and highest entropy
    second law of thermodynamics
  16. the measure of a system's randomness or disorder
    entropy (S)
  17. the flow of thermal energy from a hotter to a cooler object by direct contact
    conduction
  18. the condition of a system that is at the same temperature as it surroundings so there is no net flow of thermal energy
    thermal equilibrium
  19. a material through heat and electricity easily flow
    conductor
  20. the transfer of thermal energy from one location to another through the movement of matter
    convection
  21. a flow of matter in a fluid as warmer, lower density fluid is dispaced upward by cooler, denser fluid flowing downward. With a continuous heat input, the flow follows a cyclical path. It can occur only in a gravitational field.
    convection current
  22. nuclear particles or electromagnetic waves that radiate away from their sources; a method of heat transfer through radiant (electro-magnetic) energy
    radiation
  23. a material that does not easily conduct thermal energy or electricity, a poor conductor with tightly bound valence electrons
    insulator
  24. the amount of thermal energy an entire object must gain or lose to change its temperature 1 degree C. Heat capacity depends on the mass and thermal properties of the substance(s) in the object
    heat capacity (C)
  25. the amount of thermal energy 1 g of a substance must gain or lose to change its temperature 1 degree C.
    specific heat (Csp)
  26. a device that measures thermal energy transfer between objects within a chamber insulated from its surroundings
    calorimeter
  27. the amount of thermal energy absorbed per gram as a solid melts (fuses) at its melting point. the same abount of heat per gram must be released to freeze the substance
    latent heat of fusion (Lf)
  28. the amount of thermal energy absorbed per gram as a liquid vaporizes. the same amount of heat per gram must be released to condense the vapor to a liquid.
    latent heat of vaporization (Lv)

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