ECNH Wk 12 Poisonous Herbs and QA
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Acitonum napellus - Monks head is poisonous because....
- - is a poisonous alkaloid
- - attacks cardiac system
- - used in TCM for "coldness and Yang deficiency
- - Not allowed for internal use
Mandragora officinarum - (Mandrake or Satans apple) is poisonous because....
- - all parts poisonous - roots most poisonous
- - ancients used as analgesic and soporific
- - roots works as an emetic and purgative
- -looks very similar to other Solanaceae family members
Conium maculataum - (hemlock) Apiaceae family is poisonous because....
- - killed Greek Socrates
- - contains conline and atrohpine - they work as potent neurotoxins
- - overdose can cause paralysis, loss of speech, paralysis of respiratory centre and can cause death
- - can be mistaken for fennel of parsley - discard is not sure
Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) - poisonous because...
- - leaves roots and berries most toxic
- - contain atropine - an alkaloidal substance
- - leaves have oily feel and cause vesicular eruptions upon handling
- - berries min 3 could kill a child
- - leaf ingestion by adult can prove deadly
- - Atropine - dilated pupils, tachycardia, hallucinations blurred vision, loss of balance, feeling of flight, staggering, sense of suffocation,paleness followed by red rash
- - antidote is physostigmine or pilocarpine
Hyoscyamus niger (Hens bane) - is poisonous because....
- - contains alkaloids hyscyamine and scopalmine
- - ingestion effects include hallucinations, tachycardia, dilated pupils, flushed skin, fever, convulsions and hypertension
- - death possible at low dose
- - offensive smell
- -aerial parts are most toxic
- - ancients used to brew and induce Priestesses and oracles to cast into future
Datura stramonium - (Thorn apple or Devils trumpet) - poisonous how.....
- - atropine and scopolamine
- - all plant parts emit foul smelling odour when crushed or bruised
- - overdose symptoms - flushed warm and dry skin, very dilated pupils, dry mouth, urine retention and ileus (slow or stopped intestines), rapid heart beat, high fever, respiratory arrest, seizures and coma.
Nerium oleander - (oleander or Laurel Rosa) - poisonous how....
- - all parts toxic esp sap
- - sap white sticky latex
- - contains oleandrin and neriline - toxic glycosides
- - ingestions symptoms - nausea, emesis, excessive salivation, diarrhoea, irregular heart beat, seizures and coma
Strychnos nux-vomica (strychnine tree) - poisonous how....
- - all parts toxic
- - HIGHLY toxic plant
- - contain bruciine and strychnine - they shut down cardiac and respiratory system
- - so die from asphyxia
- - no know antidote
- - muscular spasms last for 2-3 hours then respiratory nerves shut down
- - nut like seed resemble Red Blood Cells
Amanita virosa - (Destroying Angel) - poisonous because...
- - pure white fungi often mistaken for puffball, button and meadow mushrooms
- - Amatoxin is toxic constituent
- - symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, liver and kidney necrosis, convulsions, delirium and death
- - 1/2 mushroom can be fatal
Amanita phalloides (Death Cap) - Amanita family - poisonous how....
- - fungi that is pure white - volva egg like membrane that encapsulates baby fungi.
- - Amatoxin is the toxic constituent
- - symptoms - nausea, vomiting, diarrheoa, abdominal cramps, liver and kidney necrosis, convulsions, delirium and death
- - death cap also contains toxins that destroy red blood cells
- - 1/2 mushrooms can be fatal
Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang or Ephedra) - Ephedraceae family - poisonous because...
- -TCM used as decongestant and for asthma and stimulating toxin
- - Aerial parts used to get active ingredient - Ephedrine (similar structure to amphetamines)
- - not available to herbalists
- - only available through medical doctors prescription (Schedule 4 drug)
Lobelia inflata (lobelia or Asthma Weed) - Campanulaceae family.. poisonous how...
- - Native US Indians used as mild purgative and for respiratory disease and asthma
- - contains nicotine-like alkaloid called lobelline (so has been scheduled)
- - taste is said to be like acrid
What are the main Qualitative Assessment techniques?
- 1. Macroscopic identification (i.d.)
- 2. Microscopic i.d.
- 3. Organoleptic i.d.
- 4. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
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