ECNH Wk 12 Poisonous Herbs and QA

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Anonymous
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45999
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ECNH Wk 12 Poisonous Herbs and QA
Updated:
2010-10-29 20:57:34
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Botany herbs ECNH
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Description:
summary of key point from HMB lecture 12 - poisonous herbs
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  1. Acitonum napellus - Monks head is poisonous because....
    • - is a poisonous alkaloid
    • - attacks cardiac system
    • - used in TCM for "coldness and Yang deficiency
    • - Not allowed for internal use
  2. Mandragora officinarum - (Mandrake or Satans apple) is poisonous because....
    • - all parts poisonous - roots most poisonous
    • - ancients used as analgesic and soporific
    • - roots works as an emetic and purgative
    • -looks very similar to other Solanaceae family members
  3. Conium maculataum - (hemlock) Apiaceae family is poisonous because....
    • - killed Greek Socrates
    • - contains conline and atrohpine - they work as potent neurotoxins
    • - overdose can cause paralysis, loss of speech, paralysis of respiratory centre and can cause death
    • - can be mistaken for fennel of parsley - discard is not sure
  4. Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) - poisonous because...
    • - leaves roots and berries most toxic
    • - contain atropine - an alkaloidal substance
    • - leaves have oily feel and cause vesicular eruptions upon handling
    • - berries min 3 could kill a child
    • - leaf ingestion by adult can prove deadly
    • - Atropine - dilated pupils, tachycardia, hallucinations blurred vision, loss of balance, feeling of flight, staggering, sense of suffocation,paleness followed by red rash
    • - antidote is physostigmine or pilocarpine
  5. Hyoscyamus niger (Hens bane) - is poisonous because....
    • - contains alkaloids hyscyamine and scopalmine
    • - ingestion effects include hallucinations, tachycardia, dilated pupils, flushed skin, fever, convulsions and hypertension
    • - death possible at low dose
    • - offensive smell
    • -aerial parts are most toxic
    • - ancients used to brew and induce Priestesses and oracles to cast into future
  6. Datura stramonium - (Thorn apple or Devils trumpet) - poisonous how.....
    • - atropine and scopolamine
    • - all plant parts emit foul smelling odour when crushed or bruised
    • - overdose symptoms - flushed warm and dry skin, very dilated pupils, dry mouth, urine retention and ileus (slow or stopped intestines), rapid heart beat, high fever, respiratory arrest, seizures and coma.
  7. Nerium oleander - (oleander or Laurel Rosa) - poisonous how....
    • - all parts toxic esp sap
    • - sap white sticky latex
    • - contains oleandrin and neriline - toxic glycosides
    • - ingestions symptoms - nausea, emesis, excessive salivation, diarrhoea, irregular heart beat, seizures and coma
  8. Strychnos nux-vomica (strychnine tree) - poisonous how....
    • - all parts toxic
    • - HIGHLY toxic plant
    • - contain bruciine and strychnine - they shut down cardiac and respiratory system
    • - so die from asphyxia
    • - no know antidote
    • - muscular spasms last for 2-3 hours then respiratory nerves shut down
    • - nut like seed resemble Red Blood Cells
  9. Amanita virosa - (Destroying Angel) - poisonous because...
    • - pure white fungi often mistaken for puffball, button and meadow mushrooms
    • - Amatoxin is toxic constituent
    • - symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, liver and kidney necrosis, convulsions, delirium and death
    • - 1/2 mushroom can be fatal
  10. Amanita phalloides (Death Cap) - Amanita family - poisonous how....
    • - fungi that is pure white - volva egg like membrane that encapsulates baby fungi.
    • - Amatoxin is the toxic constituent
    • - symptoms - nausea, vomiting, diarrheoa, abdominal cramps, liver and kidney necrosis, convulsions, delirium and death
    • - death cap also contains toxins that destroy red blood cells
    • - 1/2 mushrooms can be fatal
  11. Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang or Ephedra) - Ephedraceae family - poisonous because...
    • -TCM used as decongestant and for asthma and stimulating toxin
    • - Aerial parts used to get active ingredient - Ephedrine (similar structure to amphetamines)
    • - not available to herbalists
    • - only available through medical doctors prescription (Schedule 4 drug)
  12. Lobelia inflata (lobelia or Asthma Weed) - Campanulaceae family.. poisonous how...
    • - Native US Indians used as mild purgative and for respiratory disease and asthma
    • - contains nicotine-like alkaloid called lobelline (so has been scheduled)
    • - taste is said to be like acrid
  13. What are the main Qualitative Assessment techniques?
    • 1. Macroscopic identification (i.d.)
    • 2. Microscopic i.d.
    • 3. Organoleptic i.d.
    • 4. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

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