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2009-09-29 15:46:05

Chapter 2
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  1. Confounding of Variables
    Occurs when two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
  2. Correlation
    Exists when two variables are related to each other
  3. Operational Definition
    The actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
  4. Dependent Variable
    • Variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable.
    • - usually a measurement of some aspect of the subjects behavior.
  5. Steps in scientific Investigation
    • - Translate a theory/intuitive idea into a testable hypothesis
    • - Figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test
    • - Collect the Data
    • - Analyze the Data
    • - Write up a concise summary of the study and its findings
  6. Participants/Subjects
    Persons/Animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study
  7. Data Collection Techniques
    Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
  8. Journal
    Periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry.
  9. Research Methods
    Consists of differing approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies.
  10. Experiment
    Research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
  11. Independent Variable
    • Condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable.
    • - experimenter controls or manipulates
  12. Hypothesis
    Tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
  13. Variables
    Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study
  14. Correlation Coefficient
    • Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.
    • -0 and +1.00 (correlation is positive)
    • -0 and -1.00 (correlation is negative)
  15. Naturalistic Observation
    Researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
  16. Case Study
    An in-depth investigation of an individual subject
  17. Survey
    Use questionnaires or interview to gather information about specific aspects of participants background and behavior
  18. Replication
    The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
  19. Sample
    Collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
  20. Population
    Much larger collection of animals or people (from which the sample is drawn) that researchers want to generalize about
  21. Sampling Bias
    Exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.
  22. Placebo Effects
    Occur when participants expectations elad them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
  23. Social Desirability Bias
    Tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
  24. Experimenter Bias
    • Researchers expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.
    • - see what they want to see
  25. Double-Blind study
    Research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
  26. Random Assignment
    Occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study
  27. Positive Correlation
    Indicates that two variables convey (change together) in the same direction
  28. Negative Correlation
    Indicates that two variables co-vay in the opposite direction
  29. Experimental Group
    Subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
  30. Control Group
    Similar subjects who don't receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
  31. Extraneous Variables
    any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study