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Confounding of Variables
Occurs when two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
Exists when two variables are related to each other
The actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
- Variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable.
- - usually a measurement of some aspect of the subjects behavior.
Steps in scientific Investigation
- - Translate a theory/intuitive idea into a testable hypothesis
- - Figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test
- - Collect the Data
- - Analyze the Data
- - Write up a concise summary of the study and its findings
Persons/Animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study
Data Collection Techniques
Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
Periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry.
Consists of differing approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies.
Research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
- Condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable.
- - experimenter controls or manipulates
Tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study
- Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.
- -0 and +1.00 (correlation is positive)
- -0 and -1.00 (correlation is negative)
Researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
An in-depth investigation of an individual subject
Use questionnaires or interview to gather information about specific aspects of participants background and behavior
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
Collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
Much larger collection of animals or people (from which the sample is drawn) that researchers want to generalize about
Exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.
Occur when participants expectations elad them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
Social Desirability Bias
Tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
- Researchers expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.
- - see what they want to see
Research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
Occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study
Indicates that two variables convey (change together) in the same direction
Indicates that two variables co-vay in the opposite direction
Subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
Similar subjects who don't receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
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