between 1900 and 1914, approximatley 3 million immigrants came to Canada
Sir Wilfred Laurier wanted to increase Canada. He did this so that the Americans wouldn't take over the extra space.
free land for farming
promise for jobs
promise for prosperity
grants 100-200 acres of land
lots of natural resources
not as much jobs as they had said
deported if ill
sea voyage was long and terrible, as many people became sick
fear of USA invasion
What did they find when they got to canada
distance for home
Imperialists in Canada
thought that Canada should remain closely tied with Britian
usually french speaking felt Canada should distant it's self from Britain.
wanted Canada to send troops to help britain
Canada has not taken part before, opposed any participation in the war.
sent some of his army, said he would send 1000 volunteers.
They thought the Naval Service Bill did not go far enough. They thought the Navy wouldn't automatically help Britain in war.
They thought the Naval service Bill went too far.
He decided not to build 5 cruises and 6 destroyers instead they got 2 old ships from Britain.
Alaska Boundary Dispute
The dispute was all about how much territory the US and Canada wanted to have.
The Us and Britain agreed to set up a tribunal, or special panel, to make the decision. They had a vote. In the end the US received more land then what Canada wanted, but less then the US wanted.
Reciprocity- a free trade agreement with the US
Laurier lost the 1911 election on the Reciprocity issue, but dissatisfaction with his government had been growing. His compromises satisfied neither the French or the English Canadians
Who were the dominate countries
France, Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, Bosnia
Triple Entente: Britain, France, Russia
Italy started with the Triple Alliance but then switched to the Triple Entente
Why did Germany want to increase?
So that they would have greater access to raw materials, markets, natural materials and power.
What is Mobilization
The faster a country mobilizes (moves, travels).
The faster the could attack.
What was the Schieffen plan.
to defeat France by attacking through Belgium and the go and attack Russia.
Why was going to war so popular at the start.
Become a Hero
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
Troops sent to Britain to fight in WWI
was the Defence Minister of Canada
military weapons and other military equipment
Why were enlistments to war so high in Western Canada
They were so high is Western Canada because British immigration to the West had occurred in the recent decades and connections to home were still very strong.
Joining the Army
Discrimination against Blacks
Were people who opposed war.
ran the military recruitment training facilities
tried to make money as fast as possible
large contracts to friend businesses
gave the army bad boots, bad equipment, bad guns (ross rifle) and the folding shovel (failed).
Countries that had armies trained and equipped to fight.
The triple Entente and the Triple Alliance were created before the war began, and members agree to go to war for their allies
Many European citizens were nationalistic (extremely devoted to their country), and ready to fight to defend or expand their country.
The desire to expand territory
this was a motivating factor for some European Nations
Short Term Cause of WWI
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand the heir to the Austria-Hungary throne is killed by a Serbian. this resulted in a declaration of war by Austria. Ultimatums and war declarations followed until most of Europe was at war.
Battle of Ypres
Began April 1915
some of the bloodiest battles were fought around Ypres
New kind of battle, gas used for the first time.
Despite the gas the Canadian line never broke.
6,000 canadian deaths
Battle of the Somme
Began July 1st 1916
58,000 died in the first day
1,000,000 in 5 months
Known as the Bloody Battle
Their role was to listen to the British Commander, General Haig
85% Canadian troops died in the first 1/2 an hour.
no other country could take it over.
very important ridge to take.
provided a clear view of surrounding countryside, supply routes, and enemy positions.
Canada used a new approach that combined careful preperation, precise timing, and great accuracy by the Canadian gunners.
lost 10,600 troops.
another very important ridge to try and capture.
led by General Haig
massive artillery bombardment
studied and took Passchendale ridge
The Tide begins to turn
The Eastern front collapses and German soldiers concentrate on Western front.
Germany takes back many allied strongholds and pushes farther towards Paris.
The US joins the was, providing fresh troops to the triple Entente.
The Germans, Austria Hungary and weary stop their advances.
Hundred Days Offence
Final offences of the war by the Allies.
German forces begin to retreat.
Canadian soldiers help win many of the important battles.
Central Powers collapse one by one
The war officially ends as an armistice is declared at 11:00 on November 11, 1918
1919 many nations meet at the Paris Peace Conference to discuss the War.
Treaty of Versailles
Was a formal agreement reached on June 28,1919
-Germany was forced to admit responsibility for causing the war.
-Germany was required to pay damages to the the Triple Entente in the amount of 6600 million euro's ($30 billion).
-The German army was reduced in size to 100,000 people, and conscription was abolished
-The Germans were forbidden to maintain an air force or to build submarines and tanks.