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Immigration and setting the west
- between 1900 and 1914, approximatley 3 million immigrants came to Canada
- Sir Wilfred Laurier wanted to increase Canada. He did this so that the Americans wouldn't take over the extra space.
- Pull Factors
- free land for farming
- promise for jobs
- promise for prosperity
- grants 100-200 acres of land
- lots of natural resources
- Push Factors
- not as much jobs as they had said
- deported if ill
- sea voyage was long and terrible, as many people became sick
- fear of USA invasion
What did they find when they got to canada
- harsh weather
- distance for home
Imperialists in Canada
thought that Canada should remain closely tied with Britian
usually french speaking felt Canada should distant it's self from Britain.
- English view
- wanted Canada to send troops to help britain
- French view
- Canada has not taken part before, opposed any participation in the war.
- sent some of his army, said he would send 1000 volunteers.
- English Canadians
- They thought the Naval Service Bill did not go far enough. They thought the Navy wouldn't automatically help Britain in war.
- French Canadians
- They thought the Naval service Bill went too far.
- He decided not to build 5 cruises and 6 destroyers instead they got 2 old ships from Britain.
Alaska Boundary Dispute
The dispute was all about how much territory the US and Canada wanted to have.
The Us and Britain agreed to set up a tribunal, or special panel, to make the decision. They had a vote. In the end the US received more land then what Canada wanted, but less then the US wanted.
Reciprocity- a free trade agreement with the US
Laurier lost the 1911 election on the Reciprocity issue, but dissatisfaction with his government had been growing. His compromises satisfied neither the French or the English Canadians
Who were the dominate countries
France, Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, Bosnia
Triple Entente: Britain, France, Russia
Italy started with the Triple Alliance but then switched to the Triple Entente
Why did Germany want to increase?
So that they would have greater access to raw materials, markets, natural materials and power.
What is Mobilization
- The faster a country mobilizes (moves, travels).
- The faster the could attack.
What was the Schieffen plan.
to defeat France by attacking through Belgium and the go and attack Russia.
Why was going to war so popular at the start.
- Become a Hero
- Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
- Troops sent to Britain to fight in WWI
- Sam Hughes
- was the Defence Minister of Canada
- military weapons and other military equipment
Why were enlistments to war so high in Western Canada
They were so high is Western Canada because British immigration to the West had occurred in the recent decades and connections to home were still very strong.
Joining the Army
Discrimination against Blacks
Were people who opposed war.
- ran the military recruitment training facilities
- tried to make money as fast as possible
- large contracts to friend businesses
- gave the army bad boots, bad equipment, bad guns (ross rifle) and the folding shovel (failed).
Countries that had armies trained and equipped to fight.
The triple Entente and the Triple Alliance were created before the war began, and members agree to go to war for their allies
Many European citizens were nationalistic (extremely devoted to their country), and ready to fight to defend or expand their country.
- The desire to expand territory
- this was a motivating factor for some European Nations
Short Term Cause of WWI
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand the heir to the Austria-Hungary throne is killed by a Serbian. this resulted in a declaration of war by Austria. Ultimatums and war declarations followed until most of Europe was at war.
Battle of Ypres
- Began April 1915
- some of the bloodiest battles were fought around Ypres
- Gas warfare
- Many casualties
- New kind of battle, gas used for the first time.
- Canada's contribution
- Despite the gas the Canadian line never broke.
- 6,000 canadian deaths
Battle of the Somme
Began July 1st 1916
- 58,000 died in the first day
- 1,000,000 in 5 months
- Known as the Bloody Battle
- Canada's contributions
- Their role was to listen to the British Commander, General Haig
- 85% Canadian troops died in the first 1/2 an hour.
- Early 1917
- no other country could take it over.
- very important ridge to take.
- provided a clear view of surrounding countryside, supply routes, and enemy positions.
- Canada's contributions
- Canada used a new approach that combined careful preperation, precise timing, and great accuracy by the Canadian gunners.
- lost 10,600 troops.
- late 1917
- another very important ridge to try and capture.
- led by General Haig
- massive artillery bombardment
- Canada's contributions
- studied and took Passchendale ridge
- 8000 deaths
The Tide begins to turn
- The Eastern front collapses and German soldiers concentrate on Western front.
- Germany takes back many allied strongholds and pushes farther towards Paris.
- The US joins the was, providing fresh troops to the triple Entente.
- The Germans, Austria Hungary and weary stop their advances.
Hundred Days Offence
- Final offences of the war by the Allies.
- German forces begin to retreat.
- Canadian soldiers help win many of the important battles.
- Central Powers collapse one by one
The war officially ends as an armistice is declared at 11:00 on November 11, 1918
1919 many nations meet at the Paris Peace Conference to discuss the War.
Treaty of Versailles
Was a formal agreement reached on June 28,1919
- -Germany was forced to admit responsibility for causing the war.
- -Germany was required to pay damages to the the Triple Entente in the amount of 6600 million euro's ($30 billion).
- -The German army was reduced in size to 100,000 people, and conscription was abolished
- -The Germans were forbidden to maintain an air force or to build submarines and tanks.