ANS

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Anonymous
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46017
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ANS
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2010-10-29 23:28:44
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ANS Nerves drugs
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ANS lectures from Blair
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  1. More active during activities and is involved with the fight or flight response. Excitation of this expends bodily stores of energy
    sympathetic nervous system
  2. Is more active at rest, involved in digesting a meal and divesting waste products. Excitation of this activates bodily processes that conserve or replenish bodily stores of energy.
    Parasympathetic Nervous System
  3. Sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems are part of what
    Autonomic Nervous system in the peripheral nervous system.
  4. ANS is in charge of maintaining?
    homeostasis
  5. Neurons that go to an organ
    efferent neurons
  6. Myelinated, cell bodies are in CNS, secrete ACh as neurotransmitter
    Preganglionic neurons
  7. unmyelinated, located outside of CNS, secrete ACh or NE as neurotransmitter
    postganglionic neurons
  8. In charge of detecting mechanical stretch (mechanoreceptors), osmotic conditions (osmoreceptors), levels of various chemical substances (chemoreceptors). From internal environment of the body.
    sensory neurons
  9. Recieves and integrates the various sensory signals from the internal environment, then sends signals to the motor neurons to make necessary adjustments.
    Central Nervou ssystem
  10. Only uses ACh, Nicotine receptors, and is only excitatory
    Somatic Nervous Systems
  11. innervates smooth and cardiac mm, glands, and GI neurons
    Uses ACh and NE
    Has Muscarinic and Adrenergic receptors
    can be excitatory or inhibitory
    Autonomic Nervous System
  12. More of these than Motor neurons
    Afferent (sensory) neurons
  13. Located in intermediolateral nucleus (IML), exit spinal cord through ventral roots
    Preganglionic sympathetic neurons
  14. IML is in the?
    thoracic and upper lumbar regions of the spinal cord (T1-L2 or L3)
  15. Located in the ---- chain ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) that lie close to the spinal cord, and the more distant prevertebral ganglia.
    sympathetic ganglia (they extend from the neck to the coccyx)
  16. Ganglia are named according to?
    their spinal nerves
  17. superior cervical ganglion is th fusion of what ganglia
    C1-C4
  18. Middle cervical ganglion is the fusion of what ganglia
    C5-C6
  19. Stellate ganglion is the fusion of what ganglia
    C7-T1
  20. What causes widespread activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
    Preganglionic axon can diverge to innervate up to 200 postganglionic neurons.
  21. ganglia that lie along major branches of aorta
    named according to artery close to
    • prevertebral ganglia
    • (ex. celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion, and inferior mesenteric ganglion)
  22. located in sympathetic ganglia
    extend to innervate the effector organs via the gray rami communicantes
    postganglionic sympathetic neurons
  23. postganglionic sympathetic neurons usually secrete ______ except for in the _____ where they secrete ________
    NE eccrine sweat glands ACh
  24. located in adrenal medulla
    innervated by preganglionic sympathetic neurons
    secrete ______ and _____
    • chromaffin cells
    • secrete Epi and NE
  25. Thoracolumbar division
    Sympathetic Nervous system
  26. Craniosacral division
    parasympathetic nervous system
  27. located either directly on the effector organ or in close proximity to the effector organ
    parasympathetic ganglia
  28. unmyelinated and usually located on the effector organ.
    release ACh as the neurotransmitter
    postganglionic parasympathetic neurons
  29. cholinergic transmitter
    ACh
  30. Enzyme that converts choline and acetyl CoA to Acetylcholine
    choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)
  31. ACh is released following arrival of ____ at the nerve terminal
    Action Potential
  32. What enzyme stops ACh action
    • acetylcholinesterase (AChase)
    • Choline is taken back up for reuse
  33. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are stimulated by?
    ACh
  34. _____ receptors are stimulated by ___ doses of nicotine and inhibited by ____ doses of nicotine
    Nicotinic low high
  35. Can inhibit or excite effector organ
    atropine is antagonist
    muscarinic receptors (M1-5)
  36. subtype of Muscarinic receptor that is in the heart, and other smooth mm
    M2
  37. subtype of Muscarinic receptor located everywhere in the periphery
    M3
  38. subtype of Muscarinic receptor located in the brain
    M1-5 all of them
  39. Antagonist of Neuromuscular Junction (nicotinic)
    Curare
  40. Antagonist of all autonomic ganglia
    • Trimethaphan (Arfonad)
    • Hexamethonium
  41. Antagonist of the Muscarinic receptors
    Atropine
  42. Adrenegic refers to
    Hormones released
  43. synthesized from tyrosine and packaged into vesicles
    taken up into nerve terminal and reused
    Norepinephrine
  44. Ways to terminate NE action (4)
    • Reuptake into nerve terminal (most common)
    • diffuse away from nerve terminal
    • can undergo extraneuronal uptake
    • be metabolized into inactive substances
  45. Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla convert ___ into ___
    NE (80%) Epi (20%)
  46. Found on organs or tissues, and mediate the effects of released norepinephrine or the actions of circulating epinephrine
    Adrenergic receptors
  47. Agonist of Alpha adrenergic receptors (A1 and A2)
    Phenylephrine (Neosynephrine)
  48. Antagonist of A1 and A2 adrenergic receptors
    Phentolamine (Regitone)
  49. Agonist of B1-3 Adrenergic receptors
    Isoproterenol (Isuprel)
  50. Alpha receptors are _____ except in the ___ where they produce ______ effects.
    Excitatory Gastrointestinal (GI) tract Inhibitory
  51. The primary receptor on effector organs and tissues mediating alpha-adrenergic receptors.
    Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors
  52. Located on effector organs and tissue
    located on presynaptic noradrenergic terminals and act as autoreceptors
    Release of NE inhibits more release of NE
    Alpha 2 receptors
  53. ____ receptors _____ except in the ____ where they ____
    Beta inhibit heart excite
  54. Found primarily in heart exciting them
    higher HR, force of contraction and Conduction Velocity
    Beta 1
  55. located on most organs
    mediate the dilator and inhibitory effects of beta-adrenergic receptor activation
    Beta 2
  56. located primarily in brown adipose tissue
    are excited by circulating epinephrine
    When stimulated, these receptors mediate lipolysis
    Breaks rules
    Beta 3
  57. sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to produce an effect. (HR)
    Functional synergism
  58. basal resting nerve activity
    tonic activity
  59. Eyes Sympathetic receptor and response?
    A1 --> mydriasis (contract radial mm)
  60. Eyes Parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic--> miosis (contract circular mm)
  61. Heart SA node, AV node, Atria, and ventricles parasympathetic receptor and response
    B1 --> increase HR, conductivity velocity, contractility
  62. Heart SA node, AV node, Atria, and ventricles sympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> decrease HR, conductivity velocity, contractility (slightly, according to Blair)
  63. Blood vessels Arterioles Coronary sympathetic receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 and 2 constrict
    • Beta 2 dilate
  64. Blood vessels Arterioles skin sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha 1 and 2 constrict
  65. Blood vessels Arterioles skeletal mm sympathetic receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 --> constrict
    • Beta 2 --> dilate
  66. Blood vessels Arterioles Abdominal viscera sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha 1 constrict
  67. Blood vessels Veins sympathetic receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 and 2 --> constrict
    • Beta 2 --> dilate
  68. Lungs bronchial mm sympathetic receptor and response
    Beta 2 --> dilate
  69. Gastrointestinal tract salivary sympathetic receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 --> increase watery secretion
    • Beta --> increase enzyme secretion
  70. Lungs bronchial mm parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> constrict
  71. Gastrointestinal tract salivary parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic increases watery secretions
  72. Gastrointestinal tract motility sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha 1 and 2 and Beta 2 --> decrease
  73. Gastrointestinal tract motility parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> increase
  74. Urinary system kidneys sympathetic receptor and response
    • Beta 1 --> increase renin secretion
    • Alpha 1 --> decrease renin secretion
  75. Urinary system bladder wall sympathetic receptor and response
    Beta 2 --> relax (not important)
  76. Urinary system bladder wall parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> contract
  77. Urinary system bladder sphincter sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha1 --> contract
  78. Urinary system bladder sphincter parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> relax
  79. Reproductive tract male sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha 1 --> ejaculation
  80. Reproductive tract male parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> erection
  81. Sweat glands eccrine (thermoregulation) sympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> secretion
  82. Sweat glands apocrine (axillae, pubic region) sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha 1 --> secretion
  83. Metabolism Pancreas exocrine glands sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha --> decrease secretion
  84. Metabolism Pancreas exocrine glands parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> increase secretion
  85. Metabolism Pancreas endocrine glands sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha 2 --> decrease secretion
  86. Metabolism Pancreas exocrine glands (Beta cells) sympathetic receptor and response
    Beta 2 --> increase secretion
  87. Metabolism Fat cells sympathetic receptor and response
    • Alpha 1, Beta 1-3 --> increase Lipolysis
    • Alpha 2 --> decrease lipolysis
  88. Liver sympathetic receptor and response
    Alpha 1, Beta 2 --> glycogenoliysis, gluconeogenesis
  89. Metabolism Gall Bladder sympathetic receptor and response
    Beta 2 --> relax
  90. Metabolism Gall Bladder parasympathetic receptor and response
    muscarinic --> contract

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