obstetrics

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monkies
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46076
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obstetrics
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2010-10-30 13:34:15
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  1. abruptio placenta
    bleeding from a normally situated placenta as a result of its complete or partial detachment after the 20th wk of gestation
  2. amniocentesis
    aspiration of a sample of amniotic fluid throught the mother's abdomen for diagnostic analysis of fetal genetics, maturity and /or disease
  3. amnion
    smooth membrane enclosing the fetus and amniotic fluid; it is loosely fused with the outer chorionic membrane except at the placental insertion of the umbilical cord where the amnion is contiguous with the membranes surrounding the umbilical cord
  4. anechephaly
    a nural tube defect where absence of the brain, including cerebrum, the cerebellum, and basal ganglia may be present
  5. cerclage
    the ligatures around the cervix uteri to treat cervical incompetence during pregnancy
  6. cervix
    inferior segment of the uterus, whish is normally more than 3.5cm long during pregnancy decreasing in length during labor
  7. chorion
    cellular outermost extraembryonic membrane composed of thrphoblast lined with mesoderm the outer chorion (villous chorion) develop villi, which are vascularized bu allantoic vessels and gice rise to the placenta; the inner chorion ( the smooth chorion) is fused with the amniom except at the placental cord insertion
  8. cordocentesis
    insertion under sonographic guidance of a thin needle into the vessels of the umbilical cord usually at the site of placental insertion to obtain a fetal blood sample, deliver fetal drug theraphy or assess fetal welll-being
  9. corpus luteum
    a functional structure within the normal ovary, which is formed from cells lining the graafin follicle ofter oculation; the corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone and may become enlarged and appear cystic during early pregnancy
  10. ductus venosus
    vascular structure with the retal liver that connects the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava and allows oxygenated blood to bypass the liver and return directly to the heart
  11. embryo
    developing individual from implantation to the end of the 9th week of gestation
  12. embyonig age( conception age)
    age of embryo stated as time from day of conception
  13. gestational age
    length of pregnancy defined in the united states as number of weeks from first day of last normal menstrual period(LNMP)
  14. gestational sac
    structure lined by the chorion that normally implants with in the uterine deciduas and contains the developing embryo
  15. hydatidiform mole
    abnormal conception in which there is partial or complete conversion of the chorionic villi into grapelike vesicles
  16. incompetent cervix
    a condition in which the cervix dilated silently during the second trimester; without intervention, the membranes bulge through the cervix, rupture, and the fetus drops out resulting in a premature preterm delivery
  17. intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)
    reduced growth rate(symmetrical IUGR) or abnormal growth pattern ( asymmetrical IUGR) of the fetus; resulting in a small for gestational age (SGA) infant
  18. lower uterine segment
    thin expanded lower portion of the uterus that forms in the last trimester of pregnancy
  19. macrosomia
    exceptionally large infanct with excessive fat deposition in the subcutaneous tissue; most frequently seen in fetuses of diabetic mothers
  20. maternal serm alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP)
    one of several biochemical tests used to assess fetal risk for aneuploidy or fetal defect; a component of the "triple scree" the normal value varies with gestational age; assessment of gestational age is essential to accurate interpretation of results
  21. oligohydramnios
    reduced amount of amniotic fluid
  22. placenta
    argan of commuication where nutrition and products of metabolism are interchanged btwn the fetal and maternal blood systems; forms from the chorian frondosum with a maternal decidual contribution
  23. placenta previa
    placental implantation encroaches upon the lower uterine segmant; if the placenta presents first in late pregnancy, bleeding is inevitable
  24. polyhydramnios
    excessive amount of amniotic fluid
  25. trimester
    a 40 week pregnancy is divided into three 13 weel periods from the first day of the last normal menstrual period ( wks 1-12=1st trimester, wks 13-26= 2nd trimester, wks 17 - term= 3rd trimester)
  26. umbilical cord
    connecting lifeline between the fetus and placenta it contains 2 atreies which carry deoxygentated fetal blood and 1 vein which carries oxygenated fetal blood encased in Whorton's jelly
  27. yolk sac
    a circular structure within the gestational sac seen sonographically btwn 4-10 weeks of gestational age; the yolk sac supplies nutrition, facilitates waste removal, and is the origin of early hematopoietic stem cells in the embryo; it lies btwn the chorion and the amnion
  28. zygote
    products of conception from ferilization through implantation, the zygotic stage of pregnancy lasts for aprox 12 days after conception
  29. autonomy
    self-governing or self-directing freedom and especially moral independence; the right of persons to choose and to have their choices respected
  30. beneficence
    bringing about good by maximizing benefits and minimizing possible harm
  31. confidentiality
    holding nformation in confidence; respect for privacy
  32. ethics
    the study of what is good and bad and of moral duty and abligation; systematic reflection on and analysis of morality
  33. informed consent
    providing complete information and assuring comprehension and voluntary consent by a patient or subject to a required or experimental medical procedure
  34. integrity
    adherence to moral and ethical principles
  35. justice
    the ethical prinicple that requires fair distribution of benefits and burden and injustice occurs when a benefit to which a person is entitled is withheld or when a burden is unfairly imposed
  36. morality
    the protection of cherished values that relate to how persons interact and live in peace
  37. nonmaleficence
    refrain from harming oneself or others
  38. respect for persons
    incroporates both respect for the autonomy of individuals and the requirement to protect those with diminished autonomy
  39. veracity
    • truthfulness
    • honesty
  40. amniotic cavity
    cavity in which the fetus exists; forms early in gestation; fills with amniotic fluid to protect the fetus
  41. chorionic cavity
    surrounds the amniotic cavity; the yolk sac is within the chorionic cavity
  42. corpus luteum cyst
    the small yellow endocrine structure that develops within a ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes progesterone and estrogen
  43. crown-rump length (CRL)
    most accurate measurement of the embryo in the first trimester
  44. decidua basalis
    the villi on the maternal side of the placenta of embryo; unites with the chorion to form the placenta
  45. decidual capsularis
    the villi surrounding the chorionic sac
  46. dichorionic
    multiple pregnancy with 2 chorionic sacs
  47. diamniotic
    multiple pregnancy with 2 amniotic sacs
  48. double decidual sac sign
    interface btwn the decidua capsularis and the echogenic highly vascular endometruim
  49. embryologic age ( conceptual age)
    age calculated from when conception occurs
  50. embryonic period
    time btwn 6 -10 weeks of gestation
  51. endovaginal (EV) transducer
    high frequency transducerthat is inserted into the vaginal canal to obtain better definition of first trimester pregnancy
  52. hematopoiesis
    production and development of blood cells
  53. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    hormone secreted by the trophoblastic cells of the blastocyst; lab test indicates pregnancy when values are elevated
  54. IUP
    intrauterine pregnancy
  55. menstrual age (gestational age)
    length of time calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (LMP) to the point at which the pregnancy is being assessed
  56. monoamniotic
    multiple pregnancy with one amniotic sac
  57. monochorionic
    multiple pregnancy with one chorionic sac
  58. MSD
    mean sac diameter
  59. primary yolk sac
    first site of formation of red blood cells that will nourish the embryo
  60. secondary yolk sac
    formed at 23 days when the primary yolk sac is pinched off by the extra embryonic coelom
  61. yolk stalk
    the umbilical duct connecting the yolk sac with the embryo
  62. zygote
    fertilized ovum resulting from union of male and female gametes

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