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- water synthesized as a byproduct of cellular respiration.
- ex. for animals living in the desert
- an inescapable compromise between traits.
- ex. as egg size increases, clutch size decreases = trade-off between egg size and egg number
a phenotypic change in an individual in response to short-term changes in the environment.
a group of similar cells that function as a unit.
cells that are loosely arranged in a liquid, jellylike, or solid extracellular matrix.
loose connective tissue
contains an array of fibrous proteins in a soft matrix and serves as apacking material between organs or padding under the skin
cartilage & bone (matrix)
- have a firmer extracellular matrix.
- they provide structural support for the vertebrate body
a connective tissue that has cells surrounded by a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma
consists of neurons and several types of supporting cells. they deliver electrochemical signals.
skeletal muscle tissue
consists of the long cells called muscle fibers which are packed with long protein filaments that move by sliding past each other.
cardiac muscle tissue
- makes up the walls of the heart.
- Each cardiac muscle cell branches and makes direct, end-to-end physical and electrical contact with other cardiac muscle cells.
smooth muscle tissue
- cells are tapered at each end and form a muscle tissue that lines the walls of the digestive tract and walls of the blood vessels.
- responsible for involuntary movements such as the passage of food
epithelial tissues (epithelia)
- covers the outside of the body
- lines the surfaces organs
- forms glands
epithelial tissue polarity or sidedness
- apical side: faces away from other tissues and toward the environment
- basolateral side: faces the interior of the animal and is connected to other tissues
- ex. in your windpipe, the apical side secretes mucus and is covered with cilia. the basolateral side doesn't have either abilities or function
interior space of hollow organs
consists of groups of tissues and organs that work together to perform one of more functions
- the overall rate of energy consumption by an individual.
- measured in terms of oxygen consumption in units of mL of O2 consumed per hour.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the rate at which an animal consumes oxygen while at rest, with an empty stomach.
surface area/volume relationships