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2010-10-30 15:28:12
china ancient history

Chapter 4.4-4.5 China. Ancient history 5th period
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  1. What are the three philosophies?
    Confucanism, Daoism, Legalism.
  2. What is the Silk Road?
    Important trade route from China to Europe. Silk was brought to Europe.
  3. What are oracle bones?
    Used to predict the future during the Shang Dynasty
  4. First emperor of China:
    Shi Huangdi
  5. Who was Confucious?
    • Confucius was the leading and most famous teacher in ancient China.
    • Sometimes he also acted as a political advisor to emperors.
    • Confucius opened the first school for the common people. His teachings
    • went on to have a lasting influence on Chinese way of life.
  6. Explain the dynastic cycle.
    • A new ruler unites China, founds a new dynasty, and gains the Mandate of Heaven.
    • China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity.
    • The population increases.
    • Corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability.
    • A natural disaster wipes out farm land. The disaster normally would not have been a problem; however, together with the corruption and overpopulation it causes famine.
    • The famine causes the population to rebel and starts a civil war.
    • The ruler loses the Mandate of Heaven.
    • The population decreases because of the violence.
    • China goes through a warring states period.
    • One state emerges victorious.
    • The state starts a new empire.
    • The empire gains the Mandate of Heaven.
    • (The cycle repeats itself.)
  7. Explain the fundamental teachings of Confucius
    • Importance of education for moral development of the individual so that the state can be governed by moral virtue rather than by the use of coercive law
    • 5 relationships:(1) ruler to ruled; (2)father to son; (3) husband to wife; (4) elder brother to younger brother; and (5) friend to friend
    • sought ways to adopt more peaceful alternatives to constant strife.
  8. Explain the fundamental teachings of Taoism.
    • teachings of Lao-Tse
    • sought ways to adopt more peaceful alternatives to constant strife.
    • balance & harmony with others and the natural world.
  9. Explain the fundamental ideas behind Legalism.
    • based mostly on political issues
    • invented in the Han dynasty
    • legalism was a utilitarian political philosophy that did not address higher questions like the nature and purpose of life
  10. Describe yin and yang.
    • White is yang, often associated with positive traits and given a masculine connotation
    • Yin is black, feminine, and negative
    • Yin and yang-opposites
  11. Explain the concepts of filial piety.
    • originating with Confucianism
    • Respect for family/elders/ancestors