MS1, Block 2 ANS

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BigDee
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46102
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MS1, Block 2 ANS
Updated:
2010-10-31 22:54:05
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ANS Nerves receptors
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ANS from Blair
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  1. Located in the IML from T1-L2 or L3
    Preganglionic sympathetic neurons
  2. exit through the ventral roots, and course to the sympathetic ganglia via the white rami communicantes.
    preganglionic sympathetic neurons
  3. located in the sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) that lie close to the spinal cord, and the more distant prevertebral ganglia
    sympathetic ganglia
  4. extend from neck to the coccyx, even though the axons that course in them originate only from T1-L2 or L3
    Sympathetic chain ganglia
  5. named for the spinal nerve they are in
    Sympathetic chain ganglia
  6. the superior cervical ganglion is the fusion of what ganglia
    C1-C4
  7. THe middle cervical ganglion is the fusion of what ganglia
    C5-C6
  8. The stellate ganglion is the fusione of what ganglia
    C7-T1
  9. thoracolumbardivision of nervous system
    Sympathetic
  10. What helps the sympathetic nervous system produce widespread mass response?
    The chain ganglia are longer than the ones in the IML and diverge to innervate up to 200 postganglionic neurons
  11. ganglia that lie along the major branches of the aorta
    prevertebral ganglia
  12. named after the artery they are close to.
    celiac ganglion
    superior mesenteric ganglion
    inferior mesenteric ganglion
    prevertebral ganglia
  13. Cell bodies are located in sympathetic ganglia
    unmyelinated axons
    innervate effector organs via gray rami communicantes
    postganglionic sympathetic neurons
  14. secrete NE unless they innervate eccrine sweat glands where the secrete ____
    Postganglionic sympathetic neurons ACh
  15. located in adrenal medulla
    receive innervation from preganglionic sympathetic neurons
    They secrete _______(80%) and _____(20%)
    • Chromaffin cells
    • Epinephrine Norepinephrine
  16. located in either the brain or the spinal cord
    myelinated axons
    release ACh
    preganglionic parasympathetic ganglia
  17. Located either directly on the effector organ or in close proximity to the effector organ
    parasympathetic ganglia
  18. unmyelinated and usually located on effector organ.
    Release ACh as the neurotransmitter
    Postganglionic parasympathetic neurons
  19. Converts choline and acetyl CoA to acetylcholine.
    acetyltransferase (ChAT)
  20. degrades ACh. Choline is taken back upinto the nerve terminal for reuse
    Acetylcholinesterase (AChase)
  21. Classes of cholinergic receptors
    Nicotinic and Muscarinic
  22. Excites neuromuscular junction
    excites sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons at autonomic ganglia
    ACh at nicotinic receptors
  23. inhibites or excites effector organs depending on organ
    muscarinic receptors
  24. subtype of muscarinic receptor located in the heart and smooth mm
    M2
  25. subtype of muscarinic receptor located everywhere in the periphery
    M3
  26. subtype of muscarinic receptor located in the brain
    all 5 M1-5
  27. Antagonist to Neuromuscular junction
    Curare
  28. antagonist to autonomic ganglia of nicotinic receptors
    • Trimethaphan (Arfonad)
    • Hexamethonium
  29. Antagonist to muscarinic receptors
    Atropine
  30. ____ is release as a hormone from chromaffin cells but NOT from sympathetic postganglionic nerves.
    Epinephrine
  31. synthesized from tyrosine.
    Can be taken up and reused by nerve terminal
    undergo extraneuronal uptake
    or be metabolized into inactive substances
    Norepinephrine
  32. NE is converted to ____ in the chromaffin cells
    Epinephrine
  33. found on effector organs or tissues and mediate the effects of released NE or the actions of circulating epinephrine
    Adrenergic receptors
  34. Agonist of the alpha adrenergic receptors
    phenylephrine (neosynephrine)
  35. Antagonist of the alpha adrenergic receptors
    phentolamine (regitine)
  36. Agonist of beta adrenergic receptors
    isoproterenol (Isuprel)
  37. Antagonist of B1and B2 adrenergic receptors
    Propranolol (inderal)
  38. excitatory except in GI where they are inhibitory
    Alpha-adrenergic receptors
  39. Primary receptor on effector organs and tissues mediating excititatory effects except in GI
    A1
  40. located on presynaptic noradrenergic terminals and act as autoreceptors
    Extra neural release of norepinephrine is inhibited
    Alpha 2
  41. Produce inhibitory effects except in the heart, where they produce excitatory effects
    Beta Adrenergic receptors
  42. Receptors found in heart
    excites heart increasing HR, Force of contraction, Conduction Velocity
    Beta 1
  43. receptors located on most organs and mediate the dilator and inhibitory effects of beta-adrenergic receptor activation.
    Beta 2
  44. receptors located primarily in brown adipose tissue and are excited by circulating Epi
    Mediate lipolysis when excited
    does not follow rules
    Beta 3
  45. True or false
    there is almost always some autonomic nerve activity from both the SNS and PNS a=under all types of conditions
    True
  46. Eyes Sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alpha 1 mydriasis (contract radial mms)-bigger
  47. Eyes parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic miosis (contract circular mms) -smaller
  48. Heart SA node, AV node, Atria, Ventricles Sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Beta 1 increase HR, Conduction Velocity, Contractility, contractility
  49. Heart SA node, AV node, Atria, Ventricles parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic decrease HR, Conduction Velocity, Contractility, contractility (slightly according to Blair)
  50. Blood vessels, coronary arteriole sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 & 2 constrict
    • Beta 2 dilate
  51. Blood vessels, skin arterioles sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alpha 1 & 2 constrict
  52. Blood vessels, skeletal mm arterioles sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 constrict
    • Beta 2 dilate
  53. Blood vessels, abdominal viscera arterioles sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alpha 1 constrict
  54. Blood vessels, veins sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 & 2 constrict
    • Beta 2 dilate
  55. Lungs, bronchial mm is sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Beta 2 dilate
  56. Lungs, bronchial mm is parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic constrict
  57. GI tract, Salivary glands are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    • Alpha 1 increase watery secretion
    • Betas increase enzyme secretion
  58. GI tract, Salivary glands are parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Muscarinic increase watery secretions
  59. GI tract, motility is sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alpha 1 & 2 and Beta 2 decrease motility
  60. GI tract, motility is parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic increase
  61. Urinary system, kidneys are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    • Beta 1 increases renin secretion
    • Alpha 1 decreases renin secretion
  62. Urinary system, Bladder Wall are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Beta 2 relax (not important?)
  63. Urinary system, Bladder Wall are parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic contract
  64. Urinary system, Bladder sphincter are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alpha 1 contract
  65. Urinary system, Bladder sphincter are parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic relax
  66. Reproductive tract, male is sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alpha 1 ejaculation
  67. Reproductive tract, male is parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic erection
  68. Sweat glands, eccrine (thermoregulation) are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic secretion
  69. Sweat glands, apocrine (axillae, pubic region) are sympathetically controlled by?receptor and response
    Alpha 1 secretion
  70. Metabolism, Pancreas, exocrine glands are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alphas decrease secretion
  71. Metabolism, Pancreas, exocrine glands are parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic increase secretion
  72. Metabolism, Pancreas, endocrine glands are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    • Alpha 2 decrease secretion
    • (Beta cells) Beta 2 increase secretion
  73. Metabolism, Fat cells are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    • Alpha 1, Beta 1, 2, & 3 increase lipolysis
    • Alpha 2 decrease lipolysis
  74. Metabolism, Liver are sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Alpha 1, Beta 2 glyconeogenesis, gluconeogenesis
  75. Metabolism, Gall Bladder is sympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    Beta 2 relax
  76. Metabolism, Gall Bladder is parasympathetically controlled by?
    receptor and response
    muscarinic contract
  77. Non-innervated receptors stimulated by circulating Epi or NE
    most Beta receptors
  78. Non-innervated receptors located on blood vessels
    Muscarinic receptors producing vasodilation
  79. Reflex used to control short term changes in blood pressure. back to homeostasis hopefully
    Baroreceptor reflex
  80. Located in carotid sinus (at bifurcation where carotid artery divides into internal and external carotid arteries) and the aortic arch,
    Receptors that sense blood pressure
  81. Sequence of baroreflex for acute increase in blood pressure
    Increase BP -->increase activity in baroreceptor --> increase activity in _A__--> increase activity in __B__ --> __C__ activity of RVLM--->decrease ____D__ ___---> decrease BP --> __E_ activity in nucleus ambiguus ---> increase __F__ ___ to heart ---> decrease HR --> decrease BP
    • A) NTS
    • B) CVLM
    • C) increase
    • D) activity in baroreceptors
    • E) increase
    • F) vagal activity
  82. sequence of baroreflex
    • receptor in carotid -->
    • Activity in NTS -->
    • activity in CVLM -->
    • Activity in RVLM -->
    • sympathetic outflow -->
    • effects BP -->
    • activity in Nucleus ambiguus -->
    • vagal activity of heart --->
    • effects HR and BP
  83. Increase in tonic level of sympathetic tone to heart or blood vessels causes?
    Hypertension
  84. A tumor of the chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland and causes hypertension
    pheochromocytoma
  85. Drop in arterial pressure of 30mmHg or more upon standing, caused by inadequate reflex control of BP
    Poatural (orthostatic) hypotension
  86. Loss of sympathetic innervation to head. damage somewhere in path from hypothalamus to spinal cord and back up to the head
    Miosis (pupil gets smaller)
    Ptosis (eyelid droops)
    Anhydrosis (loss of sweating)
    Horner's syndrome
  87. Occurs in diabetics due to degeneration of small nerve fibers.
    impaired swallowing
    delayed gastric emptying
    diarrhea
    orthostatic hypotension
    bladder dysfunction
    erectile dysfunction (unless female)
    Autonomic diabetic neuropathy
  88. Patients with spainal cord lesion at T6 or above may develop this
    Extremely high BP
    Multiple stimuli can evoke the hypertension (autonomic dysreflexia) such as:
    bladder distension
    colon distention
    rectum distension
    touching lower abdomen
    pregnancy
    Due to rewiring after spinal cord injury
    Autonomic dysreflexia (sympathetic hyperreflexia)

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