Urinary System

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Urinary System
2010-10-31 21:25:52

Chapter 25: Urinary System
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  1. Three functions of the Urinary System
    • 1. Excretion of metabolic wastes
    • 2. Maintenance of water-salt balance
    • 3. Secretion of hormones
  2. What is a By-product of amino acid metabolism
  3. Ammonia from liver combines with carbon dioxide to form what?
  4. True or False: Urea is less toxic than ammonia?
  5. The Urinary System excretes 3 metabolic wastes, what are they?
    • Urea
    • Creatinine
    • Uric Acid
  6. This is a By-product of creatine phosphate breakdown
  7. This is a By-product of the breakdown of nucleotides
    Uric Acid
  8. A build up Uric Acid causes this?
  9. True or False: Blood volume is not associated with salt balance
    False: Blood volume is associated with salt balance
  10. Maintenance of salt-water balance in the urinary system, what causes osmosis into the blood?
  11. The more water in the urinary system, the lower or higher the blood pressure?
    The higher
  12. How do the kidneys play a role in blood pressure regulation?
    Through water and salt regulation
  13. Maintenance of water/salt balance regulates these three things
    Potassium, bicarbonate and calcium ions
  14. Maintenance of water/salt balance excretion of this happens
    Hydrogen ions
  15. Maintenance of water/salt balance reabsorption of this happens
  16. Urine ph is normally around what?
    6 due to a high acid diet.
  17. In the urinary system what 2 hormones are secreted?
    Renin and erythropoietin
  18. Secretion of renin (a hormone) in the urinary system leads to this being released from the adrenals?
  19. Secretion of renin (a hormone) in the urinary system leads to aldosterone being released from the adrenals and the reabsorption of this?
    Sodium ions
  20. This hormone secreted in the urinary system stimulates red blood cell production?
  21. This hormone secreted in the urinary system activates vitamin D for calcium absorption
  22. The four urinary organs
    Kidneys, Ureters, urinary bladder and Urethra
  23. This urinary organ is located in the lumbar region behind the peritoneum
  24. This urinary organ is covered by tough capsule and has a concave side-hilus
  25. This urinary organ is the location of the renal artery and vein
  26. This conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder
  27. This urinary organ has a three layered wall (mucosa, smooth muscle and outer connective tissue)
  28. This urinary organ conveys urine by peristalsis
  29. This urinary organ stores unine
    Urinary bladder
  30. The walls of the urinary bladder are made up of what type of muscle
  31. What urinary organ is the trigon region � due to three openings
    Urinary bladder
  32. The urinary bladder is expandable and made up of these three things
    The middle layer of circular muscle, 2 layers of longitudinal muscle and lined with transitional epithelium
  33. What are the two sphincters in the bladder neck?
    Internal and external
  34. The internal sphincter in the urinary bladder has smooth muscle and what type of control? Voluntary or involuntary
  35. The external sphincter in the urinary bladder has skeletal muscle and what type of control? Voluntary or involuntary
  36. This urinary organ conducts urine out of the body
  37. What is the size of the urethra in females?
    1.5 inches
  38. What is the size of the urethra in males?
    8 inches
  39. Since the urethra in females is very short, it increases the likelihood of what?
    A urinary tract infection
  40. In males, the prostate is associated with what urinary organ?
    The urethra
  41. In males, this urinary organ is a common pathway for reproductive and urinary tracts
    The urethra
  42. Stretch receptors in the wall of the bladder send impulses when the bladder fills to how many ml to stimulate urination
    250 ml
  43. In the urinary system, motor impulses from the spinal cord stimulates bladder contraction and micturiton occurs and what is the result of all this
  44. If micturition reflex can be over ridden by the brain in adults and older children, what can be delayed till an appropriate time
  45. Each kidney contains over 1 million of these tiny blood processing units
  46. These are the structural and functional units of the kidneys?
  47. Each nephron is composed of a system of what?
  48. Each system of tubules has its own blood supply. From the renal artery to the afferent arteriole to where?
  49. The glomerulus are know as what in the blood flow of the kidneys
    specialized capillaries
  50. In the kidneys blood flow leaves the glomerulus by way of what
    efferent arteriole
  51. Blood path in the kidney goes from the renal artery to the afferent arteriole then in the glomerulus (specialized capillaries) then leaves the glomerulus by way of the efferent arteriole then to where?
    Peritubular capillaries
  52. The final blood vessal in the path of blood flow through the kidney is what
    the renal vein
  53. The kidneys have a rich blood supply and is what portion of the total cardiac output each minute.
  54. The renal arteries divides into how many segmental arteries in the kidneys
  55. Within the renal sinus, each segmental artery branches further to form what?
    several interlobar arteries.
  56. At the medulla-cortex junction, the interlobar arteries branch into the arcuate arteries that arch over what?
    the medullary pyramids.
  57. These radiate outward from the arcuate arteries to supply the cortical tissue.
    Small cortical radiate arteries
  58. What percentage of the blood entering the kidney perfuses (pour or defuses) the renal cortex.
  59. These pretty much trace the pathway of the arterial supply in reverse
  60. What is the pathway of blood flow leaving the renal cortex? (4 blood vessles)
    cortical radiate vein, arcuate vein, interlobar vein then finally the renal vein. no segmental veins.
  61. The renal veins issue from the kidneys and empty into the what
    inferior vena cava
  62. The nerve supply of the kidneys are a variable network of autonomic nerve fibers and ganglia called what?
    the renal plexus
  63. The renal plexus is largely supplied by sympathetic fibers from where?
    Thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nervers, that run with the renal artery
  64. This regulates renal blood flow by adjusting the diameter of renal arterioles
    Syspathetic vasomotor fibers
  65. These fibers influence the urine forming role of the nephrons
    sympathetic vasomotor fibers
  66. Each nephron glomerulus and a renal tubule. The renal tubule is a cuplike structure called what?
    goomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule.
  67. T or F: Glomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule are made up of specialized cells?
    true: highly modified, branching epithelial cells
  68. The visceral layer (or inner layer) of the glomerular capsule (Bowman's) have cells called what?
    podocytes (foot cells)
  69. What layer of the glomerular capsule cling to the glomerular capillaries
    The visceral or inner layer
  70. In the glomerular capsule (bowman's) form pores for passage of what
    small molecules
  71. The part of the renal tubule closest to the renal corpuscle is called what?
    Proximal convoluted tubule - PCT
  72. The walls of the proximal convoluted tubule PCT are formed by what
    cuboidal epithelial cells with microvilli
  73. The walls of the proximal convoluted tubule PCT bear dense microvilli for what purpose
    dramatically increases the surface area for absorption.
  74. The proximal convoluted tubule PCT makes a hairpin loop called what
    loop of henle
  75. The section of the Loop of Henle thats called the thin segment, has what type of cells
    simple squamous epithelium
  76. The nephrons have short and long loops (Henle). What percentages have long loops and what percentage hase short loops
    20% of long (Henle) and 80% of short
  77. The further away renal tubule from the renal corpuscle is called what
    Distal convoluted tubule DCT
  78. The walls of the distal convoluted tubule DCT are formed by what
    Cuboidal epithelial cells with NO microvilli
  79. Distal convoluted tubule DCT of several nephrons enter how many collecting ducts
  80. Collecting ducts empty into where
    the renal pelvis
  81. Glomerular capillaries and convoluted tubules lie within what part of the kidney
    the cortex
  82. The long loops of Henle extend into what part of the kidney
    the medulla
  83. This region of a nephron is where the most distal portion of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle lies against the afferent arteriole fedding the glomerulus. What is this region called
    Juxtaglomerular apparatus JGA
  84. The arteriole walls of the juxtaglomerular apparatus have what type of cells
    granular cells or juxtaglomerular cells
  85. These are enlarged, smooth muscle cells with prominent secretory granules containing renin
    granular cells or juxtaglomerular cells.
  86. Granular cells act as mechanoreceptors that sense the blood pressure Where
    in the afferent arteriole.
  87. This is a group of tall, tightly packed cells of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle that lies adjacent to the granular cells?
    Mascla densa
  88. These are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the NaCl content of the filtrate.
    Macula densa
  89. The Juxtaglomerular apparatus include two cell populations that play important roles in what? (2 things)
    regulating the rate of filtrate and systemic blood pressure