drugs and Behavior CH 8

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drugs and Behavior CH 8
2010-11-09 13:02:00

ch 8
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  1. used, abused
    the sedative hypnotic drugs are among the most commonly ....... and ...... drugs in our society
  2. recreational , abused
    alcohol (ethanol) is the most used and abused ....... sedative hypnotic drugs and barbiturates and benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ......prescription sedative hypnotics
  3. gastrointestinal tract
    alcohol is readily absorbed from all components of the
  4. water soluble
    alcohol is highly
  5. onset of action
    duration of action
    its ........ is rather quick and its .......rather short
  6. constant, proportional
    the rate of metabolism is at a fairly ...... rate (not ....to concentration)
  7. first pass metabolism
    there is NOT a considerable.....in the liver
  8. proof
    the alcohol content of beverages is generally specified in terms of ..... which is exactly doble the actual % of ethanol they contain
  9. 45
    90 proof wiskey is ......% ethanol
  10. set and expectancy
    some of the effects are due to pharmacology but a great many of the "effects" of alcohol are due to ...
  11. cortex
    the apparent stimulation is due to the loss of inhibitory control by the ........ the part of the brain involved in the most highly integrated mental function
  12. blackouts
    complete amnesia regarding events that took place over much of the period of intoxication
  13. state dependent learning
    often long term memory (LTM) is affected primarily with respect to ones ability to retrieve information from storage possibly because of ...
  14. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    inhibits the release of.... causeing H20 to be eliminated at a high rate
  15. nephron
    functional unit of the kidney
  16. small intestine
    carbonated alcoholic beverages tend to enhance the absorbtion of alcohol because the carbination forces the alcohol in the ..... where there is greater surface area for the absorption to take place and thus, more rapid accumilation of alcohol in the brain
  17. 18 ML/ hour, 80 proof vodka/hour
    alcohol is metabolized at a rate of approx. 12 ML to ......or 1.0 to 1.5 ounces of ......
  18. 90% , oxidation
    a small amount of alcohol may be eliminated from the body unchanged but over, ....of all alcohol consumed is metabolized by .... most of which takes place in the liver
  19. acetaldehyde
    the first step alcohol is converted to.....
  20. alcohol dehydrogenase
    acetaldehyde is converted by the enzyme ....
  21. rate limiting enzyme
    this is the slowest step in alcohol metabolism and consequently the rate at which this conversion takes place limits the speed of the entire process.
  22. amount , alcohol dehydrogenase
    the conversion rate of alcohol to acetaldehyde is determined by the ....... of ........available ( this may vary from individual to individual
  23. aldehyde dehydrogenase
    in the next step the acetaldedyde is converted to acetyl coenzyme A by several enzymes the most important of which .......
  24. citric acid cycle
    Acetyl coenzyme A is converted mainly into H2O and CO2 through a series of reactions known as the........ during which usable energy is released to the body
  25. forms glucose
    oxidizes fat
    releases complex fats
    • Alcohol reduces the rate at which the liver:
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
  26. fibrosis
    formation of fibrous connective tissue, nonfunctional
  27. cirrhosis
    some individuals eventually develop.....severe hardening of the liver
  28. tachyphylaxis
    the fact that the same brain concentration of ethanol during the rising and falling portions of the tine-concentration gradient produces different effects suggest the development of ......
  29. fluidity
    one suggestion has been that alcohol when dissolved in membrane alters the ....... of the membrane ( the change in the physical characteristic of the membrane can be thought of as a swelling which interferes with the ability of the neuron to generate and conduct action potentials .
  30. alcoholic hepatitis
    some alcoholics suddenly develop the potentially lethal condition callled.......... characterized by celluar death and organ inflammation
  31. Wernicke's disease
    brain damage
  32. korsakoff's syndrome
    impairment in learning and memory
  33. tachyphylaxis
    a low to moderate degree of tolerance develops to most of the behavioral and mood altering effects of alcohol such that the chronic user must take larger and larger amount in order to obtain the desired effects
  34. cross tolerance
    occurs between alcohol and all the sedative hypnotic drugs
  35. alcohol dehydrogenase (specific enzyme) and drug metabolizing enzymes (nonspecific enzymes)
    one effect of heavy drinking is the stimulation of both ....... and,............. in the liver
  36. behavioral tolerance
    can develop in both animals and humans (e.g. driving)
  37. psychological and physiological
    alcohol has a strong potential for inducing both .... and .....dependance
  38. alcoholism , alcoholic
    when either or both of these occur with alcohol the term...... is used and the individual is reffered to as an
  39. 8-12 hours withdrawl
    agitation tremors muscle cramps nausea vomiting sweating and irregualar hear beat
  40. 12-48 hours withdrawal
    convulsions and a toxic psychosis
  41. 2-4 days withdrawal
    hallucinations clouded senses seizures and delirium
  42. delirium tremens (DTS)
    sometimes used to describe a stage of alcohol withdrawal experienced by some alcoholics characterized by profound disorientation severe tremors restlessness and vivid hallucinations
  43. hangover.
    a single days exposure can induce an abstinence syndrome which is commonly experienced as a
  44. Antabuse (disulfiram)
    blocks the action of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase therefore actetaldehyde levels go up
  45. ReVia (naltrexone)
    an opiate antagonist that reduces alcohol-induced euphoria and dampons the craving for another drink.
  46. benzodiazepines, buspironem and antidepressants
    are frequently prescribed for alcoholics in the belief that the individuals drink because of anxiety or stress or because they are depressed and the alcohol relieves these conditions
  47. psychodynamic, bahavior modification, and group therapies
    treatment centers for chemical dependency
    3 types of psychologically based treatments
  48. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    the use of alcohol during pregnancy can harm the fetus and result in....
  49. how much drinking, what stages of pregnancy
    it is not clear yet ........is harmful or at ........the harm is done
  50. brief, high concentrations , continuous consumption at low doses
    it is also not clear whether the damage results from ....... of alcohol or by ........
  51. 1st trimester
  52. 2nd and 3rd trimesters
    growth vulnerability
  53. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters
    behavior problems
  54. 8 to 16 weeks
    critical period when alcohol consumption may produce mental retardation (during this time period, neurons in the brain are migrating to their genetically predetermined destinations)
  55. NOT
    Alcohol should ...... not be consumed at anytime during pregnacy
  56. barbiturates
    these and other drugs in the sedative hypnotic class have effects similar to alcohol
  57. how quickly the drugs act
    their intensity of action
    their duration of action
    barbituarates differ from each other primarily in terms of pharmocokinetics the durgs act ...
  58. fast-acting, ultrashort-duration
    approx 15 mins
  59. short-duration
    sleep inducers
    approx 1.5 hours
  60. short-to intermediate-duration
    hypnotics or sedatives
    approx 4 hours
  61. long-acting
    sedatives or anticonvulsants
    approx 6 hours
  62. decrease excitability
    barbiturates tend to ...... throughout the nervous system
  63. hyperpolarize
    although barbiturates depolarize some neurons their predominant action throughout the nervous system is to ......neurons
  64. enhanced GABA activity
    the inhibitory influence of barbiturates is due to ........ at its receptors
  65. sleeping pills
    one of the most popular uses of the short and intermediate acting barbiturates has been in ......
  66. REM sleep
    the barbiturates depress the percentage of time spent in .......
  67. REM rebound
    a period of several days when the REM increases to as high as 40% of sleep time and may remain elevated above normal for several weeks
  68. high TI
    minimal effects of REM sleep
    less psychological dependence
    less physical dependence and withdrawal effects
    flurazepam (Dalmane) advantages
  69. increased arousal threshold (may not hear smoke alarm or baby crying)
    disrumption of deep stages of sleep
    accumulation producing daytime aftereffects
    flurazepam (Dalmane) disadvantages
  70. zolpidem (Ambien)
    a nonbenzodiazepine this is the prescribed hypnotic in the United States
  71. zolpidem (Ambien)
    it has demonstrated efficacy equal to that of the benzodiazepines it terms of shortening sleep latency and prolonging total sleep time in insominacs and has actions resembling the later class of drug but its advantages are that it appears to have low potential for inducing rebound insomnia or tolerance and withdrawal effects with chronic use.
  72. potentiate GABA-ergic transmission
    zolpidem (Ambien) appears to ...........
  73. inhalants, gases and industrial solvents
    .....consists of a wide variety of .....(e.g. ether, nitrous, oxide, chloroform) and .......(e.g. toluene, a component of some glues) that have sedative-hypnotic properties
  74. inhalants
    some of these are used as general anesthetics to put patients to sleep before surguery
  75. inhalants
    others are used for their intoxicating and euphoric properties
  76. inhalants
    most of these drugs are believed to work indiscriminately by dissolving in neutral membranes because their potency is highly correlated with their lipid solubility
  77. Anxiety disorders
    involve unrealistic irrational fears, or anxiety of disabling intensity
  78. Anxiety disorders
    collectively these disorders are the most frequently observed type of mental disorders in adults
  79. anti-anxiety drugs, minor tranquilizers
    anxiolytics are often referred to as.....
  80. anxiolytics
    have very different pharmacological and behavioral properties (e.g. higher efficacy rate, less potential for abuse, and minimal potential for inducing death through overdose
  81. specific phobias
    Fear of snakes, spiders and heights
  82. social phobias
    fear of public speaking
  83. panic disorder
    anxiety accompanied by physical symptoms
  84. generalized anxiety disorder
    chronic excessive worry over just about everything
  85. agoraphobia
    fear about being in places where escape would be difficult
  86. phobias
    panic disorder
    generalized anxiety disorder
    Postramatic stress disorder
    anxiety disorders treated with anxiolytics
  87. chlordiazepoxide (Librium) , benzodiazepines
    was introduced into clinical use and it ushered in the era of a new class of drugs called the ......
  88. diazepam (Valium) alprazolam (Xanax)
    other benzodiazepines that are most commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety are.....2
  89. benzodiazepines
    they are more specific in affecting the limbic system at doses that do not effect the recticular formation and the cerebral cortex
  90. benzodiazepines
    • have a high TI
    • have minimal effect of the drug metabolizing enzymes of the liver and therefore do not enhance the hepatic metabolism of themselves or other drugs.
  91. benzodiazepines
    tolerance develops to some of the pharmacological actions and cross tolerance may occur
  92. benzodiazepines
    have moderate psychological dependence liability physical dependence may also occur when doses considerably above therappeutic levels are administered
  93. benzodiazepines
    have only mildly suppressive effects on REM sleep although they tend to depress the deeper stages of sleep (stages 3 and 4)
  94. iatrogenic
    means "physician caused" and is utilized to explain the drug induced confusion in the elderly which commonly induced by those components and these states may be incorrectly attributed to senility
  95. benzodiazepines , synergistic , alcohol
    the .... have a ....... effect with....
  96. buspirone (BuSpar)
    an antipsychotic properties effective with mixed anxiety/depression
  97. buspirone (BuSpar)
    it appears to be more useful in anxious patients for whom daytime alertness is particularly important and in the elderly in whom the benzodiazepines may exacerbate cognitive impairment and cause adverse psychomotor effects
  98. buspirone (BuSpar)
    • lacks hypnotic, anticonvulsants and muscle relaxant properties
    • takes 1 or 2 weeks of daily treatment before the onset of its anxiolytic effects are noted
    • is much less likely to induce drowsiness and fatigue
    • does not impair psychomotor or cognitive function
    • has NO SYNERGISTIC effect with alcohol
    • lacks affinity for the benzodiazepines receptor and does not appear to act VIA GABA-mechanisms
    • is not cross tolerant with benzodiazepines and does not help reduce benzodiazepines withdrawal.
  99. antidepressants
    have been used in the treatment of patients with anxiety with some degree of success
  100. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    have come into clinical use in the treatment of depression and a wide variety of disorders in the anxiety category