Anatomy

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kcham12
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Anatomy
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2010-01-30 01:44:03
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Exam 1
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Exam 1
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  1. The study of stuctures, and the relationship of those structures to the body
    Anatomy
  2. The cutting apart of the human body for examination
    Dissection
  3. The study of the function of body parts
    Physiology
  4. Base line, many things can change this
    Homeostasis
  5. 4 things that can change homeostasis:
    • 1. Stressors
    • 2. Environment (external)
    • 3. Infection (internal)
    • 4. External and internal stimuli
  6. 4 noninvasive diagnostic techniques:
    • 1. Inspection
    • 2. Palpation
    • 3. Auscultation
    • 4. Percussion
  7. Looking, general observation
    Inspection
  8. Pressing on the body structures
    Palpation
  9. Listening
    Auscultation
  10. Think drums, tapping on the body structures and listening for an echo
    Percussion
  11. Levels of Body Organization
    • 1. Chemical
    • 2. Cellular
    • 3. Tissue
    • 4. Organs
    • 5. System level
    • 6. Organismic level
  12. atoms, combine in various ways to form molecules
    Chemical
  13. molecules arranged into specific patterns or forms to form this level; functional unit
    Cellular
  14. collection of similar cells that perfom a common function(cells form this; similar from the point of embryonic development)
    Tissue
  15. various tissues (2 or more) make up this, stomach as example
    Organs
  16. made up of different organs, come together for one purpose
    System level of body organization
  17. systems combine to make an organism
    Orgasmic level
  18. Anatomical postition
    palms forward, facing forward
  19. anatomical position: face down
    prone
  20. Anatomical position: face up
    Supine
  21. Sum of all chemical processes
    Metabolism
  22. How we react to the internal and external stimuli
    Responsiveness
  23. Specialization of cells
    Differentiation
  24. Tells us the cause of death, completed postmortem
    Autopsy
  25. Imaginary division of the body
    Planes
  26. Divides the body or organ into left and right parts
    Sagittal plane
  27. Divides the body into left and right parts directly down the middle (equal)
    Midsagittal (median) plane
  28. Unequal left and right parts
    Parasagittal plane
  29. Divides the body into anterior and posterior (front and back)
    Frontal (coronal) plane
  30. Divides the body into upper and lower parts
    Transverse plane
  31. What plane is perpendicular to the midsagittal plane?
    Transverse plane
  32. Diagonal plane
    Oblique plane
  33. Any part that is divided by the planes
    Section
  34. Anything toward the head
    Superior
  35. Anything away from the head or below
    Inferior
  36. Towards the midline of the body
    Medial
  37. Away from the midline of the body
    Lateral
  38. Closest to the point of attachment
    Proximal
  39. Further from the point of attachment
    Distal
  40. Front
    Anterior
  41. Back
    Posterior
  42. Spaces within the body that help protect, seperate, and support internal organs
    Body cavities
  43. 3 things that seperate body cavities from each other
    • 1. Bones
    • 2. Muscles
    • 3. Ligaments
  44. Houses the brain
    Cranial cavity
  45. Houses the spinal cord
    Vertebral (spinal) canal
  46. Superior body cavity
    Thoracic cavity
  47. Inferior body cavity
    Abdominopelvic cavity
  48. Term for all organs in the body
    Viscera
  49. 2 cavities within the thoracic cavity
    • 1. Pericardial cavity
    • 2. Pleural cavity
  50. Cavity between the two pleural cavities and superior to the pericardial cavity
    Mediastinum
  51. Houses the stomach, spleen, liver, gull bladder, most of the large intestine, small intestines
    Abdominal
  52. Houses the urinary bladder, some of the large intestine, and reproductive organs
    Pelvic
  53. Thoracic and abdominal cavity membranes
    • 1. Serous membrane
    • 2. Pleura
    • 3. Pericardial
    • 4. Peritoneum
  54. Very thin and slippery membrane (has two layers)
    Serous membrane; Parietal layer and visceral layer
  55. Layer of the serrous membrane that adheres to the cavity (more superficial)
    Parietal layer
  56. Layer of the serrous membrane that adheres to the organ itself (more deep)
    Visceral layer
  57. Lungs, has both a parietal layer that adheres to the wall cavity and the visceral layer that lines the lungs
    Pleura
  58. Space between the parietal and visceral layers of the lungs
    Pleural cavity
  59. Heart, has both a parietal layer that adheres to the chamber that surrounds the heart while the visceral layer lines the heart
    Pericardial
  60. Space between the parietal and visceral layers of the heart
    Pericardial cavity
  61. Abdominal cavity, has both a parietal and visceral layers
    Peritoneum
  62. 9 regions of the body:
    • 1. Right hypochondriac region
    • 2. Left hypochondriac region
    • 3. Epigastric region
    • 4. Right lumbar region
    • 5. Left lumbar region
    • 6. Umbilical region
    • 7. Right inguinal region
    • 8. Left inguinal region
    • 9. Hypogastric region
  63. Most superior region of the body
    Right and left hypochondriac region
  64. Between the hypochondriac regions
    Epigastric region
  65. Center region of the body
    Umbilical region
  66. Most inferior region of the body
    Right and left inguinal region (iliac)
  67. Between the inguinal regions
    Hypogastric region (pubic)
  68. Abdominopelvic quadrants:
    • 1. RUQ: Right upper quadrant
    • 2. LUQ: Left upper quadrant
    • 3. RLQ: Right lower quadrant
    • 4. LLQ: Left lower quadrant
  69. Problem with a bodily function
    Disorder
  70. Has signs and symptoms
    Disease
  71. Change in bodily functions
    Symptoms
  72. Can see it, like a rash
    Signs
  73. Study of disease
    Epidemiology
  74. Study of medicine or drugs
    Pharmacology
  75. See the signs and symptoms and distinguish one disease from another
    Diagnosis
  76. The basic, living, structural and functional units of the body; perform chemical reactions to create life processes
    Cells
  77. Study of cells, also cytology
    Cell biology
  78. Organelles, specialization of the processes that go on inside the cell
    Compartmentalization
  79. 3 principle parts of the cell:
    • 1. Plasma membrane (PM)
    • 2. Cytoplasm
    • 3. Nucleus
  80. 4 functions of the plasma membrane:
    • 1. Forms a barrier that surrounds the cell, still flexible
    • 2. Facilitates contact with an adjacent cell
    • 3. Controls entry and exit
    • 4. Contains receptors
  81. All the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; contains cytosol and organelles
    Cytoplasm
  82. Contains chromosomes each of which have a strand of DNA
    Nucleus
  83. Found on chromosomes, contain genetic profile
    Genes
  84. The arrangement of molecules within the plasmic membrane resembles a sea of lipids containing many types of proteins
    The fluid mosaic model
  85. _____ act as gatekeepers of the PM, let some things in and some things out but not everything
    Proteins
  86. Located in th PM; made of phopholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids
    lipid bilayer
  87. Also called transmembrane proteins, go completely across the lipid bilayer
    Integral protein
  88. Selectively move substances though the membranes
    Transporters
  89. binds with a ligand, and helps to move things across the PM, have to be together for anything to move
    Receptor
  90. Catalyzes chemical reactions
    Enzyme
  91. Protein on either side of the PM, supports the PM, contains enzymes that facilitate certain reactions to occur within the cell
    Peripheral protein
  92. Composed of a carbohydrate and a protein, extends into the extracellular fluid
    Glycoproteins
  93. Composed of a carbohydrate and a lipid
    Glycolipid
  94. Made of parts of the glyoproteins and the glycolipids, sugary coating
    Glycocalyx
  95. 3 functions of the glycocalyx:
    • 1. Acts as a cell identifier
    • 2. Serves as a lubricant
    • 3. When necessary, it facilitates the binding of cells
  96. Needed to keep the PM flexible but too much will cause problems (plaque buildup); healthy level 190-200, depends on genetics as well
    Cholesterol
  97. The cell is impermeable to ______.
    Glucose
  98. Fluid inside the cell
    Intacellular fluid (ICF)
  99. Fluid outside the cell
    Extracellular fluid (ECF)
  100. Fluid in between cells
    Interstitial fluid
  101. Interstitial fluid within blood
    Plasma
  102. Interstitial fluid of the lymphatic system
    Lymph
  103. Processes that use kinetic energy
    Passive processes
  104. 4 types of Kinetic Energy Transport:
    • 1. Simple diffusion
    • 2. Osmosis
    • 3. Facilitated diffusion
    • 4. Filtration
  105. Going from a level of high concentration and moving to a level of low concentration (CO2 into the bloodstream)
    Simple diffusion
  106. Moving from higher to lower but going through a selective permeable membrane
    Osmosis
  107. Occurs only when there is a difference in the concentration gradient; if levels are equal, nothing will happen
    Facilitated diffusion
  108. Nephrons in the kidneys use this
    Filtration
  109. Process that uses an energy source (ATP)
    Active processes
  110. Uses ATP, usually ions, going from a level of higher concentration to a level of lower concentration
    Active transport
  111. Spherical sac that transport something into the cell membrane
    Vesicle
  112. 3 types of endocytosis:
    • 1. Receptor-mediated
    • 2. Phagocytosis
    • 3. Bulk-phase (pinocytosis)
  113. Occurs in selective membrane, this is how HIV is transported
    Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  114. think Pac man; forms a psuedopod that comes out of the cell membrane to digest objects; example is _____.
    Phagocytosis; Macrophage (WBC)
  115. Swallows something into the cell, no psuedopods
    Bulk-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis) "cell drinking"
  116. Vesicles leave the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space
    Exocytosis
  117. Combination of endocytosis and exocytosis
    Transcytosis
  118. Cytoplasm is made up of what 2 components?
    Cytosol and Organelles
  119. Intracellular fluid, surrounds organelles, approximately 55% of the cell; 70-95% of this is water; reactions occur within this that are critical to the function of the cell
    Cytosol
  120. Found in the cytoplasm; has a specific shape and function
    Organelles
  121. Give the cell its shape, framework
    Cytoskeleton
  122. Cytoskeleton can be made up of what 3 things?
    • 1. Microfilaments
    • 2. Intermediate filaments
    • 3. Microtubules
  123. Supports microvillus (microscopic fingerlike projections)
    Microfilaments
  124. Thicker than the microfilaments, anchor the organelles
    Intermediate filaments
  125. Largest in the cytoskeleton, circular
    Microtubules
  126. What 3 things do microtubules make up?
    • 1. Centrosomes
    • 2. Flagella
    • 3. Cilia
  127. Lie in the pericentriolar area near the nucleus; contain 9 pairs of centrioles arranged in a circle (9+0 array: 9 pairs in a circle and none in the middle); involved in cell division, particularly the development of the mitotic apparatus
    Centrosomes
  128. Mitotic apparatus consists of the ______ and the ______.
    Centrioles and the mitotic spindle
  129. Can move a whole cell; only example in the whole body is the sperm cell
    Flagella
  130. Move debris and dirt; found in the trachea
    Cilia
  131. Studded with ribosomes and continuous with the nuclear envelope
    Rough ER
  132. Folds found in the Rough ER where ribosomes are found and produce proteins
    Cisterns
  133. Network of tubules, but does not have ribosomes; synthesize fatty acids, steroids, and detoxifies some grubs and alcohol
    Smooth ER
  134. What are the two types of ribosomes?
    • 1. Membrane bound: intracellular energy
    • 2. Free: wander around
  135. List the steps of protein transportion through the golgi complex
    • 1. Ribosomes synthesize proteins and the proteins leave the rough ER in a transport vesicle
    • 2. Vesicle enters at the entry face cistern of the golgi complex
    • 3. Travels though the folds of the golgi complex
    • 4. Leaves through the exit face of the golgi complex and can leave as one of 3 vesicles (secretory vesicle, membrane vesicle, lysosome)
  136. Name the 3 vesicles that a protein can leave the golgi complex in
    • 1. Secretory vesicle
    • 2. Membrane vesicle
    • 3. Lysosome
  137. Protein that is transported in ______ goes to the PM and is exported from the cell through exocytosis
    Secretory vesicle
  138. Protein that is transported in _____ merges and is used by the PM
    Membrane vesicle
  139. Protein transported in _____ stays within the cell
    Lysosome
  140. Organelle that is used in digestion
    Lysosome
  141. What is Tay-Sach's disease?
    Lysosomes do not actively break down (deformed, no enzymes)
  142. What are the two types of lysosomes?
    • 1. Primary (intact- all together; inactive)
    • 2. Secondary (Continuously breaking down; active)
  143. Organelle that detoxifies substances such as alcohol; very abundant in the liver
    Peroxisomes
  144. Organelle found in the cytosol and the nucleus; destroys and gets rid of any faulty lysosomes or proteins in the cell
    Proteasomes
  145. Powerhouse of the cell, produces ATP
    Mitochondria
  146. Folds of mitochondria
    Cristae
  147. Found within the cristae of the mitochondria (fluid)
    Matrix
  148. Both the mitochondria and the nucleus are _______.
    Double membraned
  149. The ____ and ____ are studded with ribosomes.
    Rough ER and mitochondria
  150. Spherical or oval shaped structure; usually the most prominent feature of a cell
    Nucleus
  151. - Found in the nucleus
    - Produces ribosomes
    - If a cell doesn't have this it cannot divide (example: red blood cell)
    Nucleolus
  152. - Found in the nucleus
    - Hereditary units
    - Control the activities and structures of the cell
    Genes
  153. - Found in the nucleus
    - Long molecules of DNA
    Chromosomes
  154. Cytoplasm of the nucleus
    Nucleoplasm/ karolymph
  155. The study of the relationships between the genome and the biological funtions of an organism
    Genomics
  156. The total genetic information carried in a cell or an organism
    Genome
  157. There are approximately _____ genes in the human genome
    30,000
  158. A group of cells that have a common embryologic origin, come together for a specific function
    Tissue
  159. The study of tissues
    Histology
  160. MD who studies and looks at tissues to make a diagnosis
    Pathologists
  161. 4 types of tissue:
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscular
    • 4. Nervous
  162. Tissue that covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs (inside), and body cavities and ducts (sweat glands)
    Epithelial tissue
  163. Gives tissue structure, connects bones and organs
    Connective tissue
  164. Tissue that generates force, allows for movement
    Muscular tissue
  165. Tissue that reacts to signals in our internal and external environment
    Nervous tissue
  166. Cells need to be connected so they communicate with each other by _______.
    Cell junctions
  167. 5 major types of cellular junctions:
    • 1. Tight
    • 2. Adherens
    • 3. Desmosomes
    • 4. Hemidesmosomes
    • 5. Gap junctions
  168. - Type of cell junction
    - Very close together, held by transmembrane poteins, occludes (prevents) anything from going into PM, also have intercelluar space
    - Found in the lining of the stomach and intestines, and in the urinary bladder
    Tight
  169. - Plaque bearing cell junction and transmembrane proteins
    - Found in the epithelial tissue of your skin
    Adherens
  170. - Also a plaque bearing junction, allow for the cells to stretch out
    - Found in the muscles of the heart
    - Contains intermediate filaments
    Desmosomes
  171. - Half of a desmosome, contains plaque as well
    - Help to anchor an underlying cell to a basement membrane
    Hemidesmosomes
  172. - Cell junction with the most space in between
    - Connexons
    - Very rapid communication between cells
    - Cancer cells do not have this; this is the reason for the out of control growth of cancer cells, because they are not communicating with each other
    Gap junctions
  173. Found in gap junctions; connect the two PMs; little bridges filled with fluid
    Connexons
  174. - Cells arranged in continuous sheets
    - Highly innervated but not vascularized (avascular)
    - Numerous cell junctions that securely attach neighboring cells
    - High capacity for cell division
    - Numerous functions
    Epithelial tissue
  175. Epithelial tissue cells have what 3 types of surfaces?
    • 1. Lateral
    • 2. Apical (free)
    • 3. Basal
  176. What are the two major types of epithelial tissues?
    • 1. Covering and lining epithelium
    • 2. Glandular epithelium
  177. Arrangement of epithelial cells into layers reflects its location and function, arrangements include:
    • 1. Simple (unilaminar)
    • 2. Pseudostratified (One layer but appears to be more than one)
    • 3. Stratified (multilaminar)
  178. Type of cell shapes in epithelial tissue:
    • 1. Squamous (flat)
    • 2. Cuboidal (cubed)
    • 3. Columnar (column)
    • 4. Transitional (can change from one shape to another and then go back to its shape, ex. bladder)
  179. - Epithelial tissue
    - Flat cells, nuclei are centrally located
    - Found in the alveoli in the lungs, very thin and allows for diffusion, also in the kidneys for the use of filtration
    Simple Squamous
  180. - Epithelial tissue
    - One layer, nuclei are centrally located
    - Found where there needs to be absorption and secretion, in the kidneys and in the lining of many ducts
    Simple Cuboidal
  181. - Epithelial tissue

    2 types:
    - Non ciliated (has microvilli, found in the small intestine)
    - Ciliated (contains cilia, found in the ovary and upper respiratory)
    Simple Columnar
  182. - Epithelial tissue
    - All of the nuclei do not reach the apical surface, ciliated
    - Found in the trachea
    Pseudostratified columnar
  183. - Epithelial tissue
    - 2 layers or more
    - Found in places that need protection, lining of the mouth and in the lining of the vagina
    - Can be keratinized or nonkeratinized (pap smear test)
    Stratified squamous
  184. Term used to describe older and dead cells
    Keratinized
  185. Term used to describe moist, living cells
    Nonkeratinized
  186. - Epithelial tissue
    - Somewhat rare, mostly found in the ducts of some sweat glands
    Stratified cuboidal
  187. - Epithelial tissue
    - Somewhat rare, found in the ducts of glands
    - Function is protection and secretion
    Stratified columnar
  188. - Epithelial tissue
    - Can stretch and come back to original shape
    Transitional
  189. _____ is one of the most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body
    Connective tissue
  190. Functions of connective tissue:
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Support
    • 3. Strength
    • 4. Insulates internal organs
    • 5. Transportation (example: blood)
  191. - Composed of cells seperated by an extracellular matrix
    - Highly vascularized
    - Thoroughly innervated
    - Catilage and tendons are not highly vascularized or innervated but are still considered to be this kind of tissue
    Connective tissue
  192. Connective tissue is derived from ______.
    Mesenchyme (mesechymal cells)
  193. Immature connective tissue cells have names that end in ____ and can divide.
    -blast
  194. Mature connective tissue cells have names that end with _____.
    -cyte
  195. Connective tissue matrix consists of ____________.
    Ground substance (interfibrillar extracellular matrix)
  196. The extracellular matrix of connective tissue is made up of ________.
    Protein fibers (fibrillar extracellular matrix)
  197. 3 types of protein fibers that make up the extracellular matrix of connective tissue:
    • 1. Collagen fibers
    • 2. Elastic fibers
    • 3. Reticular fibers
  198. - Protein fiber
    - Most abundant in the body
    - Promote strength and flexibility, pliable (easy to work with)
    - Come from the protein collagen
    Collagen fibers
  199. - Protein fiber
    - Come from protein elastin
    - Provide strength and elasticity
    - Can stretch up to 150% of their original length
    - Found in the lungs
    Elastic fibers
  200. - Protein fiber
    - Come from protein collagen
    - Give organs strength and framework
    Reticular fibers
  201. Embryonic connective tissue contains:
    • 1. Mesenchyme
    • 2. Mucous Connective Tissue (Wharton's jelly)- found only in the umbilical cord
  202. 3 types of loose CT:
    • 1. Areolar CT
    • 2. Adipose
    • 3. Reticular
  203. - Loose CT
    - Several types of cells in it (fibroblast, macrophages, all 3 types of fibers)
    - Found in the subcutaneous layer of skin, also in blood vessels
    Areolar CT
  204. - Loose CT
    - Cell fits with adipose and pushes nucleus to the outside of the cell
    - Fat
    Adipose
  205. - Loose CT
    - Found in lymph nodes
    - Binds smooth muscle
    - Also found in internal organs, liver, spleen
    Reticular
  206. 3 types of Dense CT:
    • 1. Dense regular CT
    • 2. Dense irregular CT
    • 3. Elastic CT
  207. - Dense CT
    - Not as vascularized as loose
    - Fibroblast lie in between parallel lines of collagen fibers
    - Found in tendons
    Dense regular CT
  208. - Dense CT
    - Fibers are not praallel
    - Fibroblast are scattered among collagen fibers
    - Found in areas that need to expand a little bit, heart valves
    Dense irregular CT
  209. - Dense CT
    - Contain fibroblast that are scattered among elastic fibers
    - Found in elastic arteries ( arch of the aorta)
    Elastic CT
  210. Cartilage contains _______ (cells of mature cartilage) embedded in the ______
    chondrocytes; lacunae
  211. _____ can be found at the end of long bones.
    Perichondrium
  212. 3 types of Cartilage:
    • 1. Hyaline cartilage
    • 2. Fibrocartilage
    • 3. Elastic
  213. - Cartilage
    - Found at the end of long bones, in your nose, joints
    - Most abundant in the body, but not the strongest
    - In the joints, reduce friction and abdorb shock
    Hyaline
  214. - Cartilage
    - Strongest type
    - Lacks a perichondrium
    - Contains visible bundles of collagen fibers
    - Found in intervertebral discs and the menisci of your knee
    Fibrocartilage
  215. - Cartilage
    - Found in the epiglottis and the external ear
    - Contains a network of elastic fibers
    Elastic
  216. Bone (Osseous) Tissue contains ______.
    Osteocytes
  217. 2 types of bone tissue:
    • 1. Compact (dense) bone
    • 2. Spongy (cancellous)
  218. Bone tissue that contains haversion canal systems including osteons, lacunae, lamellae, caniliculi, osteocytes
    Compact (dense) bone
  219. Bone tisse inside the bone; contains trabeculae (spaces)
    Spongy (cancellous)
  220. Liquid connective tissue contains:
    • 1. Blood tissue (plasma)
    • 2. Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
    • 3. Leukocytes (white blood cell)
    • 4. Platelets (role in clotting)
    • 5. Lymph (interstitial fluid that flows in lymphatic vessels)
  221. 2 primary types of membranes:
    Epithelial and synovial membranes
  222. 3 types of epithelial membranes:
    • 1. Mucous membranes (mucosa)
    • 2. Serous membranes (serosa)
    • 3. Cutaneous membrane (skin)
  223. - Epithelial membrane
    - lines canvities open to the outside (nose)
    Mucous membrane (mucosa)
  224. - Epithelial membrane
    - Lines the cavities that have no opening to the outside
    - Lines the parietal layer of a cavity
    Serous membrane (serosa)
  225. - Epithelial membrane
    - Skin
    Cutaneous membrane
  226. - Membrane
    - Contains synovial fluid
    - Joints, bursa
    Synovial mebranes
  227. Muscular tissue consists of cells, usually called _______ that are specialized to contract and therefore provide motion, maintain posture, and generate heat.
    Muscle fibers (myocytes)
  228. 3 types of muscular tissue:
    • 1. Skeletal muscle
    • 2. Cardiac muscle
    • 3. Smooth muscle
  229. - Muscle tissue
    - Striated
    - Voluntary
    - Multinucleated
    Skeletal muscle
  230. - Muscle tissue
    - Branched
    - Striated
    - Involuntary
    - Inercalated disc (gives heart rhythmiticity)
    Cardiac muscle
  231. - Muscle tissue
    - Non striated
    - Involuntary (usually)
    Smooth muscle
  232. Nervous tissue consists of 2 major types of cells:
    • 1. Neurons
    • 2. Neuroglia
  233. - Part of the nervous tissue
    - Detects the stimuli (action potential)
    Neurons
  234. - Part of the nervous tissue
    - Contains the nucleus
    Cell body
  235. - Receives messages from neurons in the nervous tissue
    Dendrites
  236. - Sends messages away from the cell to the next neuron, or to effectors
    Axon
  237. Support the neuron in nervous tissues
    Neuroglia
  238. The extracellular components of tissues, such as ____ and _____, change with age.
    Collagen and elastic fibers

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