Human Biology

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Author:
JenniferHodges
ID:
46296
Filename:
Human Biology
Updated:
2010-10-31 15:45:10
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Radiation Biology
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Description:
Eric's test Ch 32
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  1. What is RNA and where are they located?
    • Ribonucleic Acid(one of the two important nucleic acids for human metabolism.
    • They are located in the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
  2. What is protein synthesis?
    The metabolic production of proteins (Taking small amino acids and building proteins)
  3. What is the difference between early effect and late effect of radiation exposure?
    • Early-Radiation exposure response occurs w/in minutes or days after the radiation exposure (Burns,A-Bombs, Death)
    • Late-Radiation exposure isn't observed for months or years (Genetic Mutation, Cancer) (You CAN have a side effect from minimal amounts of radiation exposure!)
  4. What is the difference between functions of all cell parts?
    • Mitochondria-Macromolecules are digested and produces energy for the cell (Powerhouse)
    • Lysosomes-Small pea like sacs, contain enzymes capable of digesting cell fragments (Garbage Men)
    • Ribosomes-Small, dot like structures that "PROTEIN SYNTHESIS" happens, which is essential to cell function.
    • Nucleus-Contains DNA (Brain of cell)
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum-Connects nucleus to ribosome or cytoplasm (Communication)
  5. Give examples of epithelial, connective/supporting muscle, and nervous tissue?
    • Epithelial-Skin, blood vessels, and digestive cells (Anything can be exposed to the outer world)
    • Connective/Supporting-Ligaments (Connects bone-to-bone) Cartilage (Cushions Joints)
    • Muscle-Heart, Hamstring (Protein is the main energy source)
    • Nervous Tissue-Spinal and Nerve Cells ( Avenue for electrical impulses to be transmitted)
  6. where is DNA located in the cell?
    In the nucleus of the cell (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) (Genetic Code, Blue Print)
  7. What is the difference between tissue, organs, and organ systems?
    • Tissue-Collection of cells of similar structure and function (Skin)
    • Organs-These similar structures are connected and have same job (Stomach, Heart)
    • Organ System-Some tissues and organs combine into an overall organization (Digestive Cardiovascular)
  8. What are in the cells of the Nucleic Acid?
    Nucleic Acid-DNA, RNA
  9. What is Metabolism and what two parts consist of metabolism?
    • When you have both, catabolism and anabolism working at the same time.
    • Catabolism-The breaking down of macromolecules into smaller units.
    • Anabolism-The production of large molecules from small cells.
  10. What is the difference between Carbs, Lipids, and Proteins?
    • Carbs-Composed solely of Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen (Sugar, Saccharides) (Glucose is the ultimate molecule that fuels the body)
    • Lipids-Fat-Glycerol & Fatty Acids-thermal insulators under the skin (Hardest to break down)
    • Proteins-Start as amino acids-Protein synthesis turns amino acids into proteins.
  11. What are the different phases between Mitosis and Meiosis?
    • Mitosis-Somatic and Genetic Cells (everything but reproductive cells get reproduced).
    • Interphase-Invisible (Nothing happens).
    • Prophase-Cellular Change (DNA starts showing up and enlarges, therefore, making the nucleus bigger).
    • Metaphase-The chromosomes appear and are lined up along the equator of the nucleus.
    • Anaphase-They start splitting but are still on the equator.
    • Telephase-The cell divides and makes two cells.
    • Meiosis-Has all stages as Mitosis.
  12. What % of water is the body?
    80%
  13. What % of oxygen and hydrogen is the body?
    • 85%
    • Oxygen-25%
    • Hydrogen-60%
  14. What is the difference between somatic and genetic cells?
    • Somatic-All cells of the body except oogonium and spermatagonium (Mitosis)
    • Genetic-Oogonium of a female and Spermatagonium of a male (Meiosis)
  15. What are the two major parts of a cell?
    • Cytoplasm-Gel, Holds cell together.
    • Nucleus-Floats around in gel.
  16. What is the most radiosensitive target cell in the body?
    The nucleic acid-DNA
  17. What provides the ultimate fuel for cell metabolism?
    Carbs-Glucose
  18. What is the most basic level of the body?
    Cell
  19. What makes up the bulk of the cell?
    Cytoplasm-Biggest part of the cell (Most abundant)
  20. What part of the cell is the "POWERHOUSE"
    Mitochondria-Produces energy
  21. What is the most radiosensitive tissue in the body?
    • Lymphoid tissue-
    • Bone Marrow (MOST)
    • Muscle, Brain, Spinal (LEAST)
  22. What chromosomes results after Mitosis and Meiosis?
    • Mitosis-Somatic Cells-46 Chromosomes (23 Pairs)-The cell would die
    • Meiosis-Genetic Cells-23 Chromosomes (So they can "Marry")
  23. What is cell theory?
    Cells are the basic function unit of all living things.

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