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What is the average % water in an adult male/ adult female
While the % varies with % fat the average for a male is 53% and the average for a female is 45%
What What percent of lean body mass is water?
60% in adults and 75% in newborns
What percent of fat is water?
10% of fat is water
Why is the low percentage of fat in water important?
Because fat doesn't need much water to store a lot of energy
What % of the water in LBM is intracellular fluid?
What percentage of LBM is interstitial fluid?
What percentage of LBM is plasma?
Define transcellular fluid and give 3 examples
- Transcellular fluid is fluid that is surrounded by an epithelium (as opposed to plasma which is surrounded by an endothelium)
- examples: CSF, intraocular, bladder, gut, etc.
What are the components of extracellular fluid and what % of the water in LBM do they make up
- The components are interstitial fluid, plasma, and transcellular fluid
- the make up 20% of the water in LBM
What is the maximum % of fat in a moblie human?
How does a high % body fat affect resistance in the cardiovascular system?
For every pound of fat you add a mile of capillaries. capillaries are in parallel so they lower the resistance of the system
What is the daily intake of water through drinking?
What is the daily water intake due to food water?
What is the daily water intake due to water of oxidation?
What is the maximum amount of water due to drinking that a human can consume in a day?
How much water do you get from oxidation of 100g of fat?
100g of water
How much water of oxidation do you get from 100g of carbs?
How much water of oxidation do you get from 100g of protein?
How do desert animals satisfy there daily water intake needs?
They get their water from their food and water of oxidation
What is the daily output of water through urine?
What is the daily water output through evaporation?
What is the daily output of water in feces?
What is the minimum amount of daily water output in urine and why?
500-600 ml/day is the min. amount of urine that can remove metabolic nitrogen from the system in the form of urea and creatinine
Why are people with renal failure put on a low protein diet?
the low protein diet lowers nitrogen so their min. urine output is lower.
How is water balance adjusted in the short term?
ADH and free-water excretion
How are adjustmens to water balance made in the long term?
- In two stages, sodium chloride balance then ADH
- "where goes the salt so goes the water"
What are the functions of the kidney? (there are 7)
- water balance
- electrolyte balance
- nitrogen excretion
- excretion of non-volatile acid and base
- excretion of foreign compounds
- erythropoietin (hormone) secretion
- activation of vitamin D
What makes kidney function so impressive?
That it maintains all of its functions with limited and intermittent access to water and electrolytes
What is the most important renal function?
What is the process of nonsoluble comound excretion?
Nonsoluble compounds go to the liver to be conjugated then excreted by the kidney
Label the adrenal, renal artery, renal vein, hilus, kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, ureteral orifices, bladder, urethra and external urethral orifice
How many nephrons are in a human kidney?
What are the vascular structures in a nephron in order?
- afferent arteriole
- efferent arteriole
- peritubular capillaries
- vasa recta
what are the tubular structures of a nephron in order?
- Bowman's capsule
- proximal tubule (covoluted and straight)
- thin descending limb of Henle
- thin ascending limb of Henle
- thick ascending limb of Henle
- distal tublule and connecting tubule
- collecting duct
Where aer the vascular structures and tubular structures?
In the renal corpuscle and the juxtaglomerular apparatus
What are the features of cortical nephrons?
- glomerulus in outer cortex
- no thin descending limb of Henle
- can't concentrate urine
- 85% of all nephrons
What are the features of a juxtamedullary (JG) nephrons?
- glomerulus near medulla
- long thin limb of Henle
- concentrated uring
- 15% of all nephrons
What 2 factors determine ability to concentrate urine?
- # of JG nephrons
- length of thin limb of Henle
What types of cells are in the proximal tublue
3 types (S1-S3 ) at different locations, become less complex
What cell types are present in the connecting tubule?
connecting tubule cells and intercalated cells
What cells types are in the cortical collecting duct?
principle and intercalated
What is the major cell type in the cortical collecting duct?
What are the 2 types of intercalated cells and what are the differences between them?
- alpha: most common in normal kidney, acid regulation
- beta: base regulation, most common if you eat a lot of tums
What are the three renal processes?
Which of the three renal processes is passive?
the net outcome of all three renal processes (it's what is lost in urine)
Where does filtration take place?
All filtration occurs in the renal corpuscule- out of the glomerular capilaries into Bowman's space
What is the function of the negative charge in the renal corpuscule?
The negative charge prevents the loss of albumin which also has a negative charge
What are podocytes and what is there function?
- They are cells that wrap around the glomerulous to create a size restriction (65 kda, the size of albumin) for molecules being filtered
- they also prevent the capilaries from distending
What is the capilary oncotic pressure in the glomerulus?
What is the tubular oncotic pressure in Bownan's space
What is the capilary hydraulic pressure in the glomerulous?
What is the hydraulic pressure in Bowman's space?
What does GFR stand for?
glomerular filtration rate
How can capillary hydraulic pressure be increased?
- dilating the afferent glomerular arteriole
- constricting the efferent glomerular arteriole
- increasing arterial blood pressure