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What are the Italian, French, and German words that mean "stopped" horn?
- Italian- chiuso
- French- bouche
- German- gestopft
What is a natural horn or trumpet?
One which has no valves; the fundamental pitch is governed by the length of the tube.
What are the differences between the brass mouthpieces?
- Horn: funnel-shaped; Other brass: cup-shaped;
- Shallowest to deepest: trumpet, trombone, tuba
What was the highest partial demanded during the Classical period?
Define clarino trumpet playing.
trumpet virtuosity in the Baroque period; fast melismatic passages
extra U-shaped tubing that allowed players to play notes in another harmonic series on the same instrument before the advent of valves
horn with valves
What is the function of a valve?
engages extra coiled tubing, allowing full chromaticism
What happens when the first valve is depressed?
Lowers open pitch a whole step
What happens when the second valve is depressed?
Lowers open pitch a half step
What happens when the third valve is depressed?
Lowers open pitch one and a half steps
What happens when the first and third valve are depressed?
Lowers open pitch P4
What happens when the second and third valve are depressed?
Lowers open pitch M3
What happens when the first and second valve are depressed?
Lowers open pitch m3
What happens when all three valves are depressed?
Lowers open pitch tritone
What are positions on the trombone? What effect do they have?
- Playing positions of the slide which have a certain fundamental pitch
- The positions can be changed precisely and with perfect intonation, and any chromatic pitch can be played
How many positions are there on the tenor trombone?
Name the fundamental pitches in all positions on the tenor trombone.
- I: Bb
- II: A
- III: Ab
- IV: G
- V: Gb
- VI: F
- VII: E
What are the positions on the bass trombone?
- I: F
- II: E
- III: Eb
- IV: D
- VI: Db
- VII: C
What is the fundamental in first position on the tenor trombone?
What note is difficult to perform on the bass trombone unless an F attachment is present?
Name at least three brass mutes.
What does a mute do to a brass instrument?
- Makes it softer
- Changes the character or color of the sound
- Sometimes raises the pitch
What is the standard orchestral mute?
Name the usual brass complement of a large symphony orchestra.
- 4 horns
- 3 trumpets
- 3 trombones
- 1 tuba
"Horn in Bb alto" vs. "Horn in Bb basso"
- alto = high, basso = low
- Alto transposes M2 down
- Basso transposes M9 down
What is the lowest written pitch for trumpet?
What trills should be avoided for horn and trumpet?
- Ab3 to Bb3
- C4 to Db4
- B3 to C#4
What is meant by F, Bb, Eb, or double Bb tubas?
all non-transposing; refers to range, fundamentals, and pedal tones
How are most trills performed on the horn?
Either with the valve or by manipulating the lips
What is the difference in the transposition (sounding) of the F horn and the F trumpet?
- F horn- down P5
- F trumpet- up P4
Remember to study construction of instruments!
What is the overtone series up to the 12th partial?
- octave, P5, P4, M3, m3, m3, M2, M2, M2, M2, M2, OR...
- octave, P5, P4, dominant 7 chord, whole step, Lydian scale (raised 4th)
What is the range of the Bb trumpet?
F#3 to D6
What is the range of the C trumpet?
F#3 to C6
What is the range of the horn in F?
F#2 to C6
Of the three versions of the trombone, which is the most common in modern symphony orchestras?
the tenor trombone
What is the range of the tenor trombone?
E2 to Bb4
What is the range of the bass trombone?
Bb1 to Bb4
What is the range of the tuba?
D1 to G4
What is the range of the euphonium and the tenor tuba?
Bb1 to Bb4
What is the range of the baritone?
E2 to Bb4
How are the brass instruments scored?
- Horns 1 & 2
- Horns 3 & 4
- Trumpets 1 & 2
- Trumpet 3
- Trombones 1 & 2
- Trombone 3- bass
In what clef(s) does the horn in F write?
bass and treble
In what clef(s) does the trumpet write?
In what clef(s) does the trombone write?
bass and tenor
In what clef(s) does the tuba write?
In what clef(s) does the baritone write?
In what clef(s) do the euphonium and tenor tuba write?
Know what each instrument sounds like!
What is a valve horn or trumpet?
rotary valves activate extra coiled tubing when pressed, rendering the instrument completely chromatic
What is a Wagner tuba? Name some composers other than Wagner who have used it.
- It's shaped like a horn and sounds like one, only much lower
- Bruckner and Strauss
What is the major difference between a euphonium and a baritone?
The euphonium's bore is more conical.
Describe an ophicleide and its sound.
- Looks like a metal bassoon except with a conical tube with a wide bell
- Sounds mellow, like a euphonium
How does the diameter of the bell contribute to the sound of the brass instrument?
The smaller the bell, the more controlled, and the bigger, the more spread the sound moves.
Give the transpositions (soundings) for horn in:
A basso, Bb basso, C basso, D, Eb, E, F, G, Ab, A, Bb alto, C alto
- A basso: 8ve and m3 lower
- Bb basso: M9 lower
- C basso: 8ve lower
- D: m7 lower
- Eb: M6 lower
- E: m6 lower
- F: P5 lower
- G: P4 lower
- Ab: M3 lower
- A: m3 lower
- Bb alto: M2 lower
- C alto: sounds as written
Give the transpositions (soundings) for trumpet in:
A, Bb, B, C, D, Eb, E, F, Bb piccolo
- A: m3 down
- Bb: M2 down
- B: m2 down
- C: as written
- D: M2 up
- Eb: m3 up
- E: M3 up
- F: P4 up
- Bb piccolo: m7 up
How do the tenor and bass trombones transpose?
How do the euphonium, F tuba, CC tuba, and BBb tuba transpose?
What are the four major functions of the brass choir?
- 1. as a homophonic unit (alone or in combination with other orchestral choirs)
- 2. as a presenter of melody (as a soloist, in combination with other instruments, or as an independent voice in a contrapuntal texture)
- 3. as a builder of orchestral climaxes
- 4. as a provider of coloristic effects (muted, jazzy, or more novel sounds and techniques)
In what register should you avoid writing long passages for the tuba?
below the staff (bass clef)