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Recommendations for routine immunizations: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV)
spread by fecal-oral route and from person-to-person contact, by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Abrupt onset with fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice. Recommended beginning at age 1, second dose no sooner than six months after the first one.
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
Can lead to fatal consequences from cirrhosis or liver cancer during adulthood. Most infants get affected in the womb and increases a lot during adolescence. All newborns should get this. Given intramuscularly in vastus lateralis muscle in newborns.
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Diptheria
rarely in U.S. -respiratory problems. Commonly administered in combo with tetanus and pertussis vaccines or in combo with a conjugate Hib vaccine, as a single antigen when combined antigen preparations are not indicated.
Diptheria vaccine does not provide absolute immunity, protective antitoxin persists for 10 years or more when given with recommended schedule and boosters given every 10 years
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Tetanus
Comes in 3 forms: tetanus toxoid, tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG)-human, and tetanus antitoxin(animal-horse)-no longer available in U.S. Tetanus toxoid is used for routine primary immunization for 10 year protection. Recommended for children 11-12 who have completed the DTaP/DTP vaccine series yet have not received the tetanus booster dose.
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Pertussis
Recommended for kids 6 weeks through 6 years of age who have no neurologic contraindications. Two forms of pertussis vaccines: Whole-cell pertussis vaccine-prepared form from inactivated cells of Bordetella pertussis and contains multiple antigens. Secondly, Acellular pertussis vaccine-one or more immunogens derived from B-pertussis, associated with fewer local and systemic reactionsl, recommendeed for the first three immunizations and given at 2,4, and 6 months of age.
Health care workers under 65 should be given Tdap booster adacel every 10 years
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Polio
All-IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine) is now recommended for all U.S. kids. Should receive four doses at 2,4,6-18 months, and 4-6 years. IPV reduces the paralysis risk
Recommendations for routine immunizations: measles, mumps and rubella
Measles: Given 12-15 months of age, second vaccination at 4-6 years
Mumps: 12-15 months of age, typically combined with measles and rubella (MMR) Should not be given to infants younger than 12 months bc of maternal antibodies.
Rubella: Protection of the unborn child is key. For kids 12-15 months, combined with above. Not currently given to prego women bc it may cross placenta and harm fetus
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)
- Protects against bacterial meningitis, epiglottitis, bacterial pneumonia, septic arthritis, and sepsis. Current Hib vaccines: PedvaxHIB and Comvax, which are combo vaccines=they connect to Hib to a nontoxic form of another organism, there is no antibody response. decreases #of injections an infant receives.
- Must be given by intramuscular injection using a separate syringe and at a seperate site from any concurrent vacines. **Child must still receive appropriate vaccine for meningococcal and diptheria illnesses**
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Varicella
Varivax recommended for any susceptable child (cell-free live-attenuated). First dose ages 12-15 months and second dose 4-6 years of age. Single dose of 0.5ml subcutaneously, should be kept frozen and used within 30 min
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Pneumonococcal
PCV7 or Prevnar (seven-valent streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccine) used for kids under 2 years to reduce bacterial infections. administered at 2,4, and 6 months with fourth dose at 12-15 months. PCV7 also given to kids under 24 months or older children with sickle cell/nephrotic syndrome/chronic renal failure/DM/HIV.....
Recommendations for routine immunizations: Influenza
Children 6 months and older. Annually to kids 5 or older. *ppl allergic to EGGS should not get this*** Intramuscular or flu-mist
Recommendations for routine immunizations: meningococcal
Recommended kids receive quadrivalent conjugate vaccine MCV4 (Menactra) at the 11-12 year visit. Intramuscular injection, 0.5ml and can be given with other vaccines in separte syringe and site. **Do NOT give if allergic to rubber latex