ADVANCED PLACEMENT UNITED STATES HISTORY2.txt
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ADVANCED PLACEMENT UNITED STATES HISTORY
IDENTIFICATIONS FOR UNIT III
�~ �Corrupt Bargain�
- l � The charge made by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in
- return for the office of Secretary of State. Allegedly Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Tariff of Abominations
- 1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated states rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
- -i~~t~e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L~ Vice-President John Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition and Protest
- Vice-President John Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each State in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not evoked; Calhoun suggested nullification as a more peaceful solution. Later a South Carolina senator, he said the North should grant the South�s demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states� rights.
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson�s radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830�s.
Cherokee Indian removal, �Trail of Tears�
- A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty
- of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in
- Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the �Trail of
Worchester v. Georgia 1832
The Supreme Court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like States, with excusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson refused to enforce the decision and Georgia ignored the ruling.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: 1831
The Supreme Court ruled that Indians were not independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal government.
Whigs: origins, policies
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay�s American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
Maysville Road Veto, 1830
- The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay�s state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he did not like Clay and said that the Bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners. Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation
- improvements with State money. Jackson applied a strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
Jackson~s removal of deposits
- Angry because Nicolas Biddle used Bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits
- from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who would not comply. He was charged with abuse of power.
- Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S.
The Webster-Hayne debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states� rights doctrine, which permitted each State to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States� rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual States and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the State. Jackson protested this.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
- Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and
- 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and
- anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
Force Bill, 1833
The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina�s ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because Congress passed it the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Second Great Awakening
- A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of
- salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, blacks, and Native
Samuel Slater (1768-1835)
When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.
Robert Fulton, Clermont
- A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America�s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the
- Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for �engine�), 1798
- He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a
- profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the
Specie Circular, 1836
The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by States printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many State banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many State banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge, 1837
Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a State to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. A State could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830�s and 1840�s, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, and that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1 882)
- Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force
- today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1 862), �On Civil Disobedience�
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1 847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, �On Civil disobedience,� he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
De Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority�s unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
The concept of �republican motherhood� arose during and after the American Revolution. As the principles of liberty and democracy rose in importance to the rebelling colonists, American society gradually came to promote the idea that women needed to clearly understand and embrace these values, so that they could be transmitted to children at a young age and help secure their central position in the minds and hearts of Americans. �Republican motherhood� is usually seen as a phenomenon peaking between 1775 and 1800 (but extending well into the early decades of the 1800s), while the formation of the republic was still first and foremost in the minds of Americans.
�cult of domesticity�
It was the belief during the Age of Jackson that a woman�s role in marriage was to maintain the home as a refuge for her husband, train the children, and set a moral example for children to follow. True women were expected to possess four virtues: piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity. Feminism opposed this understanding of gender roles. The �cult of domesticity� identified the home as the �separate, proper sphere� for women, who were seen as morally superior to and purer than men and thus better suited to parenting. According to this view, women were also believed to be resistant to �tainting� by the increasingly competitive, industrial world.
Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1 844)
- Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith�s announcement that God
- sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of
- Mormon and died a martyr.
Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1847
- Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of
- Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically
- and economically.
Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820�s, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many States to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Commonwealth v. Hunt, 1842
Case heard by the Massachusetts Supreme Court. The case was the first judgment in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
An early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women�s suffrage. Her home was a station on the Underground Railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women�s rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the wc5men�s suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women�s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868-1 870.
Seneca Falls, July, 1848
Reaction to the �cult of domesticity� standards led to the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York. It was led by Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They re-wrote the United States Declaration of Independence into the Declaration of Sentiments to include women, and listed a set of grievances that women had towards men. Eleven resolutions, one of which called for women�s suffrage, were adopted.
Emma Willard (1787-1 870)
Early supporter of women�s education, in 1818 she published �Plan for Improving Female Education,� which became the basis for public educ�ation of women in New York. In 1821, she opened her own girls� school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Horace Greeley (1811-1 873)
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying �Go west, young man.� He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
Texas War for Independence
After a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In response, Texas issued a Declaration of Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiftly put down the rebellion, but Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his forces and captured him in the Battle of San Jacinto, and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
Cyrus McCormick, mechanical reaper
McCormick built the reaping machine in 1831, and it made farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
Robert Fulton, steamships
- A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America�s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the
- Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
Independent Treasury System, Van Buren and Polk
Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1 879)
A militant abolitionist, he became editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831 and founded the American AntiSlavery Society. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slaveholders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
Theodore Weld (1802-1895)
Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract �American Slavery as It Is� (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom�s Cabin.
Theodore Parker (181 0-1 860)
A leading transcendentalist radical, he became known as �the keeper of the public�s conscience.� His advocating for social reform often put him in physical danger, though his causes later became popular.
The Grimke sisters, Sarah and Angelina
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Elijah Lovejoy (1802-1837)
An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four times and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1 895)
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglass became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an antislavery weekly, the North Star and lectured with William Lloyd Garrison until they parted company on issues of prejudice in the North and secession of the South.
Harriet Tubman (1 821-1913)
A former escaped slave, she was one of the shrewdest conductors of the Underground Railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom. She made 19 trips into slave territory to lead fellow blacks to freedom. Her successes caused her to be referred to as �the Moses of her people.�
Slave revolts: Prosser, Vesey, Turner
Actual slave revolts were extremely rare, but the knowledge that they were possible struck terror into the hearts of white southerners everywhere. In 1800, Gabriel Prosser gathered 1,000 rebellious slaves outside Richmond; but two Africans gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin. Prosser and 35 others were executed. In 1822, the Charleston free black Denmark Vesey and his followers�rumored to total 9,000�made preparations for revolt; but again word leaked out, and suppression and retribution followed. On a summer night in 1831, Nat Turner, a slave preacher, led a band of African Americans armed with guns and axes from house to house in Southhamption County, Virginia. They killed 60 white men, women, and children before being overpowered by State and federal troops. More than 100 blacks were executed in the aftermath. Nat Turner�s was the only actual slave insurrection in the 19th century South, but fear of slave conspiracies and renewed violence pervaded the section as long as slavery lasted.
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