embolism 3

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embolism 3
2010-11-01 02:08:05

embolism 3
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  1. most common symptom of emboli
  2. 2 clinical feature of embolism
    • dyspnea
    • pleuritic pain and hemoptysis
  3. 2 physical findings of emboli
    • tachypnea
    • tachycardia
  4. breathsounds of emboli
    • usually clear
    • may include rales and wheezing
    • pleural friction rubif infarction is present
  5. syncope is seen on occasion (confusion and lightheadedness) if
    LV output and systemic BP decrease
  6. ABGs of emboli
    • resp alkalosis
    • mild to moderate hypoxemia on room air
    • increased A-a gradient
  7. hemodynamic values of emboli********
    • increase PAP
    • CVP will increase depending upon the severity of occlusion
    • PCWP will be normal to low
    • -low value seen when right heart failure reduces left ventricular preload
  8. most definitive test to confirm presense of emboli
    pulm angiogram (radiographic findings)
  9. radiographic findings are usually
    inconclusive to normal
  10. 5 prevention of DVT
    • positioning
    • active and passive exercises of lower extremities
    • use of stockings to prevent thrombi -TED stockings - thrombo-embolic defense
    • intermittent pneumatic compression devices - SCD's - sequential compression devices
    • prophylactic anticoagulation therapy
  11. 5 types of treatment to treat emboli
    • heparin to prevent formation of new clots
    • streptokinase, urokinase, TPA to dissolve existing clots
    • insertion of umbrella - greenfield filter
    • oxy therapy
  12. serious complication of musculoskeletal trauma
    fat embolism
  13. 2 types of fractures from fat embolism
    • long bone fractures of leg
    • pelvic fractures
  14. particles of fat from bone marrow enter blood during
  15. some small fat particles may enter
    systemic circulation and are carried to other organs
  16. most fat particles enter
    pulm circulation
  17. 4 types of neurologic complications
    • confusion
    • stupor
    • delirium
    • coma
  18. radiographic findings of fat embolism
    • diffuse patchy densities
    • -alveolar

    don't look at x-rays.