# Geo 301 Midterm

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1. Map
A spatial representation of the environment
2. Cartographic map
a graphic representation of the environment
3. Egocentric
direct experience
4. Geocentric
mentally orient yourself with respect to external environment
5. Map Characterisitcs
• (Mapness)
• vertical or oblique view of the environment
• drawn to scale
• drawn on a map projection
• generalized and symbolized representation
6. what makes maps popular?
• convenient to use
• simplify our surroundings
• are credible documents
• have strong visual impact
7. Thematic maps
focus on specific subject and be organized
8. Map Use
process of obtaining useful information from one or more maps to help you understand the environment and improve mental map
9. How does an image differ from a cartographic map?
• variable scale
• not on a map projection
• generalized?
• symbolized?
10. Earth circumference
• 24,907 mi
• 40,075 km
11. Graticule
• Parallels and Meridians
• use to locate features by their coordinates
12. Parallels
• (latitude)
• equally spaced east - west
13. Meridians
• North - South lines
• (longitude)
14. Numerical range of Latitude
• 0 degrees to 90 degrees
• Spacing = 69.2 mi. per deg.
15. Numerical range of Longitude
0 degrees to 180 degrees
16. Degrees, Minutes, Secs to Decimal Degrees
Degrees + min/ 60 + seconds/3600
17. Spacing of meridians
69.2 mi/ deg. * cosine (latitude)
18. Great Circle
largest possible circle that could be drawn on the surface of the spherical earth
19. Antipodal meridian
180 degree meridian opposite from prime meridian
areas on earth bounded by equal increments of latitude and longitude
21. Oblate Ellipsoide
parallels are not spaced equally as on a sphere
22. Geodetic latitude
• angle made by a line perpendicular to ellipsoid surface at the parallel and equator line
• is on large scale maps
23. Geoid
• surface where gravity is the same as at mean sea level (MSL)
• elevation measure by geoid, but GPS uses ellipsoid
24. Representative Fraction (RF)
1/x = map distance / ground distance
25. Ways of specifying scale
• 1. RF 1:24,000
• 2. Scale statement : one inch to 20,000 ft
• 3. Scale bar
26. Large Scale Maps
• Zoomed in
• Smaller RF
27. Smaller Scale Maps
• Zoomed out
• Larger RF
28. Calculating RF from a known terrestrial feature:
1 mi wide section of land = 1.01 in on map
• 1/x = 1.01in / (1 mi. * 63,360 in /mi)
• = 1.01 in / 63,360 in
• x = 63,360 in / 1.01 = 62,500
• 1:62,500
29. Calculate RF from reference material:
1:62,500 distance between roads 5.69 in and 7.42 in on your map
• 1/62,500 = 5.69 in
• 1/x 7.42 in
• x = 62,500 = 5.69 in /7.42 in = 47,900
• 1:47,900
30. Calculating RF from spacing of parallels and meridians:
2 parallels separated by 30 minutes of lat to be 4.37 inches apart on map
• 30 minutes of lat = .5 deg *69.2 mi/deg = 34.6 mi
• 1/x = 4.37 in /34.6 mi
• = 4.37 in / (34.6 mi *63,369 in/mi)
• x = 34.6 mi *63,360 in/mi / 4.37 mi
• 1:502,000
31. Map Projection
geometrical transformation of the earths spherical or ellipsoidal
32. Geometric Distortions on Maps
• continuity
• correspondence relations
• distance
• area
• direction
• shape
• completeness
33. Geoid
project earths irregular surface topography onto a more regular imaginary surface.
34. Three map projection families
• Planar
• Cylindrical
• Conical
35. Tangent - Case
Projection surface may either touch the globe at a point (point of tangency) or along a line (line of tangency)
36. Secant - Case
planar projection surface intersects the globe along a small - circle line of tangency
37. Azimuthal Projections
• (planar projections)
• projecting onto a plane tangent to the globe at a point
38. Azimuthal
projections that preserve global directions
39. Conformal
• angles on the globe are preserved on the map
• "correct form or shape"
40. Equidistance
preservation of distance on a map projection
41. Aspect
Location of the point or line(s) of tangency on the generating globe
42. What are the 4 map projection properties?
• Azimuthal
• Conformal
• Equidistance
• Equal Area
43. Four map projections on geometric distortions
• mercator cylindrical conformal
• transverse mercator
• lambert conformal
• alberts equal area
44. Orthographic
• projection is how the earth would appear if view from a distant planet
• all rays of light are infinite and parallel
45. Stereographic
projecting a light source from the antipodal point on the generating globe to the point of tangency
46. Gnomonic
• earliest map projections, first used for star maps by Greek scholar Thales of Miletus in 6th century B.C.
• all great circles on the earth are shown as straight lines
47. Azimuthal equidistant
• projection in its polar aspect has the distinctive appearance of a dart board - equally spaced parallels and straight- line meridians radiating outward from the pole
• all straight lines drawn from point of tangency are great circle routes
48. Rhumb Lines
all lines of constant compass direction; are straight lines on mercator map
49. Peters Projection world map
showed 3rd world countries more fairly
50. Transverse Mercator
Rhumb lines are not straight lines; north - south of earth are projected with no local shape distortion and little distortion in area
51. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
84 degrees N to 0 degrees to 80 degrees S latitude
52. Cartesian Coordinates
square grid on the map with divisions left to right on horizontal X axis and divisions bottom to top labeled on a vertical Y axis
53. State Plane Coordinates
created in 1930's by land surveying in US define property boundries
54. Metes and Bounds System
• Property Boundry
• Legal property description tied to earth features and remained useful as long as neighbors agreed with place names and accepted the boundries
55. French Long Lots
• Along rivers or lakes = chief source of transportation and communication for French
• waterfront as parallels lines, creating narrow ribbon farms or long lots
56. US Public Land Survey (USPLSS)
• Township and Range System
• Prior to settlement and required all grants be recorded
• 1-36
• 37< = Donation Land Claims
• Prinicpal Meridians and Base Lines
57. External Errors
• impose methods on the map from the outside
• judgements, calcualtions, methods
58. Internal Errors
distortions in a map
59. Physical measurement for distance
• use scale bar
• use latitude as a scale bar
• use map rulers
• use mechanical measuring devices
60. Orienting by Inspection
• 1 liner feature
• 2 liner features
• Prominent objects
61. Magnetic Declination
angular difference between true and magnetic
62. Agonic Line
true and magnetic north poles are aligned
63. Compass Points
early mariners, use winds to find their way
64. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)
GPS correction data for precision aircraft positioning
65. GPS
Global Positioning System

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 Author: Kinazulu808 ID: 46418 Filename: Geo 301 Midterm Updated: 2010-11-01 06:20:40 Tags: Map Interpretation Folders: Description: GEO 301 Midterm Show Answers:

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