Geo 301 Midterm

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Kinazulu808
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46418
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Geo 301 Midterm
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2010-11-01 02:20:40
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Map Interpretation
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GEO 301 Midterm
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  1. Map
    A spatial representation of the environment
  2. Cartographic map
    a graphic representation of the environment
  3. Egocentric
    direct experience
  4. Geocentric
    mentally orient yourself with respect to external environment
  5. Map Characterisitcs
    • (Mapness)
    • vertical or oblique view of the environment
    • drawn to scale
    • drawn on a map projection
    • generalized and symbolized representation
  6. what makes maps popular?
    • convenient to use
    • simplify our surroundings
    • are credible documents
    • have strong visual impact
  7. Thematic maps
    focus on specific subject and be organized
  8. Map Use
    process of obtaining useful information from one or more maps to help you understand the environment and improve mental map
  9. How does an image differ from a cartographic map?
    • variable scale
    • not on a map projection
    • generalized?
    • symbolized?
  10. Earth circumference
    • 24,907 mi
    • 40,075 km
  11. Graticule
    • Parallels and Meridians
    • use to locate features by their coordinates
  12. Parallels
    • (latitude)
    • equally spaced east - west
  13. Meridians
    • North - South lines
    • (longitude)
  14. Numerical range of Latitude
    • 0 degrees to 90 degrees
    • Spacing = 69.2 mi. per deg.
  15. Numerical range of Longitude
    0 degrees to 180 degrees
  16. Degrees, Minutes, Secs to Decimal Degrees
    Degrees + min/ 60 + seconds/3600
  17. Spacing of meridians
    69.2 mi/ deg. * cosine (latitude)
  18. Great Circle
    largest possible circle that could be drawn on the surface of the spherical earth
  19. Antipodal meridian
    180 degree meridian opposite from prime meridian
  20. Quadrilaterals
    areas on earth bounded by equal increments of latitude and longitude
  21. Oblate Ellipsoide
    parallels are not spaced equally as on a sphere
  22. Geodetic latitude
    • angle made by a line perpendicular to ellipsoid surface at the parallel and equator line
    • is on large scale maps
  23. Geoid
    • surface where gravity is the same as at mean sea level (MSL)
    • elevation measure by geoid, but GPS uses ellipsoid
  24. Representative Fraction (RF)
    1/x = map distance / ground distance
  25. Ways of specifying scale
    • 1. RF 1:24,000
    • 2. Scale statement : one inch to 20,000 ft
    • 3. Scale bar
  26. Large Scale Maps
    • Zoomed in
    • Smaller RF
  27. Smaller Scale Maps
    • Zoomed out
    • Larger RF
  28. Calculating RF from a known terrestrial feature:
    1 mi wide section of land = 1.01 in on map
    • 1/x = 1.01in / (1 mi. * 63,360 in /mi)
    • = 1.01 in / 63,360 in
    • x = 63,360 in / 1.01 = 62,500
    • 1:62,500
  29. Calculate RF from reference material:
    1:62,500 distance between roads 5.69 in and 7.42 in on your map
    • 1/62,500 = 5.69 in
    • 1/x 7.42 in
    • x = 62,500 = 5.69 in /7.42 in = 47,900
    • 1:47,900
  30. Calculating RF from spacing of parallels and meridians:
    2 parallels separated by 30 minutes of lat to be 4.37 inches apart on map
    • 30 minutes of lat = .5 deg *69.2 mi/deg = 34.6 mi
    • 1/x = 4.37 in /34.6 mi
    • = 4.37 in / (34.6 mi *63,369 in/mi)
    • x = 34.6 mi *63,360 in/mi / 4.37 mi
    • 1:502,000
  31. Map Projection
    geometrical transformation of the earths spherical or ellipsoidal
  32. Geometric Distortions on Maps
    • continuity
    • correspondence relations
    • distance
    • area
    • direction
    • shape
    • completeness
  33. Geoid
    project earths irregular surface topography onto a more regular imaginary surface.
  34. Three map projection families
    • Planar
    • Cylindrical
    • Conical
  35. Tangent - Case
    Projection surface may either touch the globe at a point (point of tangency) or along a line (line of tangency)
  36. Secant - Case
    planar projection surface intersects the globe along a small - circle line of tangency
  37. Azimuthal Projections
    • (planar projections)
    • projecting onto a plane tangent to the globe at a point
  38. Azimuthal
    projections that preserve global directions
  39. Conformal
    • angles on the globe are preserved on the map
    • "correct form or shape"
  40. Equidistance
    preservation of distance on a map projection
  41. Aspect
    Location of the point or line(s) of tangency on the generating globe
  42. What are the 4 map projection properties?
    • Azimuthal
    • Conformal
    • Equidistance
    • Equal Area
  43. Four map projections on geometric distortions
    • mercator cylindrical conformal
    • transverse mercator
    • lambert conformal
    • alberts equal area
  44. Orthographic
    • projection is how the earth would appear if view from a distant planet
    • all rays of light are infinite and parallel
  45. Stereographic
    projecting a light source from the antipodal point on the generating globe to the point of tangency
  46. Gnomonic
    • earliest map projections, first used for star maps by Greek scholar Thales of Miletus in 6th century B.C.
    • all great circles on the earth are shown as straight lines
  47. Azimuthal equidistant
    • projection in its polar aspect has the distinctive appearance of a dart board - equally spaced parallels and straight- line meridians radiating outward from the pole
    • all straight lines drawn from point of tangency are great circle routes
  48. Rhumb Lines
    all lines of constant compass direction; are straight lines on mercator map
  49. Peters Projection world map
    showed 3rd world countries more fairly
  50. Transverse Mercator
    Rhumb lines are not straight lines; north - south of earth are projected with no local shape distortion and little distortion in area
  51. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
    84 degrees N to 0 degrees to 80 degrees S latitude
  52. Cartesian Coordinates
    square grid on the map with divisions left to right on horizontal X axis and divisions bottom to top labeled on a vertical Y axis
  53. State Plane Coordinates
    created in 1930's by land surveying in US define property boundries
  54. Metes and Bounds System
    • Property Boundry
    • Legal property description tied to earth features and remained useful as long as neighbors agreed with place names and accepted the boundries
  55. French Long Lots
    • Along rivers or lakes = chief source of transportation and communication for French
    • waterfront as parallels lines, creating narrow ribbon farms or long lots
  56. US Public Land Survey (USPLSS)
    • Township and Range System
    • Prior to settlement and required all grants be recorded
    • 1-36
    • 37< = Donation Land Claims
    • Prinicpal Meridians and Base Lines
  57. External Errors
    • impose methods on the map from the outside
    • judgements, calcualtions, methods
  58. Internal Errors
    distortions in a map
  59. Physical measurement for distance
    • use scale bar
    • use latitude as a scale bar
    • use map rulers
    • use mechanical measuring devices
  60. Orienting by Inspection
    • 1 liner feature
    • 2 liner features
    • Prominent objects
  61. Magnetic Declination
    angular difference between true and magnetic
  62. Agonic Line
    true and magnetic north poles are aligned
  63. Compass Points
    early mariners, use winds to find their way
  64. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)
    GPS correction data for precision aircraft positioning
  65. GPS
    Global Positioning System

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