Sociology 101-3.txt

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msese09
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46440
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Sociology 101-3.txt
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2010-11-01 09:36:27
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Midterm 1
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  1. Sociology
    The systematic study of human society.
  2. Sociological Perspective
    the special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people.
  3. Global Perspective
    the study of the larger world and our society's place in it.
  4. High-Income Countries
    Nations with the highest overall standards of living.
  5. Middle-Income Countries
    Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole.
  6. Low-Income Countries
    Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor.
  7. Positivism
    A way of understanding based on science.
  8. Theory
    A statement of how and why specific facts are related.
  9. Social-Conflict Approach
    A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.
  10. Gender-Conflict Approach
    A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men.
  11. Feminism
    Support of social equality for women and men.
  12. Race Conflict Approach
    A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories.
  13. Macro-Level Orientation
    A broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.
  14. Micro-Level Orientation
    a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
  15. Symbolic-Interaction Approach
    A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
  16. Stereotype
    a simplified description applied to every person in some category.
  17. Profane
    Included as an ordinary element of everyday life.
  18. Sacred
    Set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence.
  19. Religion
    A social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred.
  20. Ritual
    Formal, ceremonial behavior.
  21. Faith
    Belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence.
  22. Church
    A type of religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society.
  23. State Church
    A church formally allied with the state.
  24. Denomination
    A church, independent of the state that recognizes religious pluralism.
  25. Sect
    A type of religious organization that stands apart from the larger society.
  26. Extended Family
    A family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin; also known as a consanguine family.
  27. Nuclear Family
    A family composed of one or two parents and their children; also known conjugal family.
  28. Monogamy
    Marriage that unites two partners.
  29. Polygamy
    Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses.
  30. Polygyny
    Marriage that unites one man and two or more women.
  31. Polyandry
    Marriage that unites one woman and two or more men.
  32. Descent
    The system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations.
  33. Patrilineal Descent
    A system tracing kinship though men.
  34. Matrilineal Descent
    A system tracing kinship through women.
  35. Bilateral Descent
    A system tracing kinship through both men and women.
  36. Incest Taboo
    A norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.
  37. Homogamy
    Marriage between people with the same social characteristics.
  38. Infidelity
    Sexual activity outside of one's marriage.
  39. Family Violence
    Emotional, physical, or sexual abuse of one family member by another.
  40. Cohabitation
    The sharing of a household by an unmarried couple.
  41. Theoretical Approach
    A basic image of society that guides thinking and research.
  42. Structural-Functional Approach
    A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
  43. Social Structure
    Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior.
  44. Social Functions
    The consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
  45. Manifest Functions
    The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
  46. Latent Functions
    The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
  47. Totem
    An object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred.
  48. Liberation Theology
    The combining of Christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character.
  49. Charisma
    Extraordinary personal qualities that can infuse people with emotion and turn them into followers.
  50. Cult
    A religious organization that is largely outside a society's cultural traditions.
  51. Animism
    The belief that elements of the natural world are conscious life forms that affect humanity.
  52. Religiousity
    The importance of religion in a person's life.
  53. Secularization
    The historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacred,
  54. Civil Religion
    A quasi-religious loyalty linking individuals in a basically secular society.
  55. Fundamentalism
    The conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, otherworldly religion.
  56. Family
    A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups that care for one another, including any children.
  57. Kinship
    A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.
  58. Endogamy
    Marriage between people of the same social category.
  59. Exogamy
    Marriage between people of different social categories.
  60. Patrilocality
    A residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the husband's family.
  61. Matrilocality
    A residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the wife's family.
  62. Neolocality
    A residential pattern in which a married couple lives apart from both sets of parents.

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