What are the three species under the genus Trypanosoma?
T. brucei rhodesiense
T. brucei gambiense
What are the three species under the genus Leishmania?
This is a form of Mastigophora that is approx 2-5u x1-3u, intracellular with nucleus and rod shaped kinetoplast.
The Amastigote form is seen predominantly in what parasite in tissue?
This is an elongated, slender and flat form of Mastigophora where nucleus is at the center of the organism and kinetoplast and flagellum are at anterior ends. 12u x 4-6u.
This form of Mastigophora is similar to promastigote, but more slender, kinetoplast, nucleus, and flagellum are present as well as an undulating membrane.
This form of Mastigophora is commonly found in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and CSF, there is a full undulating membrane and posterior kinetoplast.
What is the vector for T. brucei rhodesiense?
Riverine Tsetse fly
Wjat os tje vector for T. brucei gambiense?
woodland Tsetse fly
What is the vector for T. cruzi?
what two stages is T. cruzi in while it has the reduviid bug host?
T. cruzi is een mostly in what regions?
South and centeral america
What is the vector for Leishmania?
What is the genus of sandfly responsible for transmission of Leishmania?
In leishmania, infective ________ are introduced into the skin by a sandfly bite, and travel to the RE cells.
What is the clinical sign seen with infection of T. b. Rhodesiense and gambiense?
infection by this organism will cause east african sleeping sickness which is more sever, and fatal in few months.
T. b. rhodesiense
infection by this organism causes west african sleeping sickness which is less sever, fatal in years.
T. b. gambiense
infection by this organism causes chagas' disease.
What is the clinical sign that is seen with infection by T. cruzi?
infection by this organism causes Kala-azar or Dumdum fever, known as visceral leishmaniasis.
infection by this organism causes Eastern or cutaneous leishmaniasis, or oriental sore.
Infection by this organism causes american, or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, characterized by soft palate distruction.
Trypomastigotes occuring is blood and CSF, also reticular tissue, lymph nodes, spleen, and brain indicates infection by what genus?
In this form of Typanosomes, there is a central nucleus, and a shift of kinetoplast to the posterior end. Undulating membrane extends throughout length of body.
African species (T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense) are morphologically __________. Small kinetoplast.
These Trypanosomes have a "C" or "U" shape, large kinetoplast, Trypomastigotes in blood, amastigote and epimastigote in pseudocysts in cardiac and smooth muscle cells, brain and monnuclear phagocytes
T. Cruzi is approx 20u long with central nucleus, _________________ not as prominent as african trypanosomes.
Leishmanias is identified by tissue biopsy from what six areas?
These amastigotes have a large nucleus, rod shaped kinetoplast, 2-5u x 1-3u, round, ovoid, and rarely visible axoneme.
Coccidian parasite with complex life cycles including both sexual and asexual reproduction.
Subclass of tissue dwelling protozoan prasites in many vertebrates.
asexual cycle of malaria in human RBCs.
Stage with multiple divizion.
sexual cycle of apicomplexan parasites, in the mosquito.
the sexual stage of malaria
sudden onset of a symptom of disease (chills, fever of malaria)
reffering to malaria (paludal marshes)
These specimens should be fixed in 10% formalin, concentration procedures increase reliability.
Fecal specimens for blood and tissue parasites should be stained using what stain?
acid fast stain
these specimens are used in identification of malaria and babesia.
peripheral blood for malaria should be taken from what two sites with no anticoagulant, thin and thick smear should be made.
This specimen should be used to detect T. gondii and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
What are three alternatives to tissue biopsy?
Sputum and Bronchopulmonary samples are used to detect what what blood and tissue parasite?
What is the stain used on sputum and bronchopulmonary samples of P. carinii?
Toluidine O stain
In this smear preparation, morphology is reliably demonstrated, red cells are intact, and diagnosis to species level can be made.
This smear preparation enhances likelihood of detecting light parasitic infections, red cells are hemolyzed.
Thick smear preparation is not recommended for speciation except for ___________ gamete.
How are Thin smears prepared?
Fix in absolute methanol
50/50 wright's and giemsa stain
stain for 45 min
scan 15-30 min
report type and stage
how are thick smears prepared?
apply severla small drops on slide (dime size)
50/50 wright's giemsa
stain 45 min
report as positive or negative for malaria
This is the only known host in which sexual reproduction ot T. gondii occurs.
cats are infected with T. gondii by ingesting ___________ from rodents.
Asexul stage of T. gondii occur in what three hosts?
Infectinve ________ of T. gondii from cat feces may be ingested and become sporozoites.
This is a fetal neurologic problem if T. gondii is contracted within 1st trimester.
how is T. gondii diagnosed?
T. gondii is seen in routine biopsy of enlarged ________.
This form of T. gondii is pyriform or crescent shape with membrane, nucleus and organelles, obligate intracellular parasite.
The life cycle of this parasite has not been established, transmission is by droplet.
This blood and tissue parasite is pathogenic worldwide, opportunistic in immunocompromised, premature infants, and HIV.
This organims has unicellular, pleomorphic trophozoites, and spherical or cresent shaped, thick walled cysts.
This is a sprozoan parasite of RBC transmitted by ticks, sexual reproduction occurs in tick, asexual reproduction in RBC.
Babesia is seen in what two patients?
This organism forms pleomorphic rings in RBCs, resembles P. falciparum and appears pyriform (in pairs), round, oval, elongate or ameboid. 4 rings form a maltese cross.
This is the infective form of malaria to man?
sprozoites of malaria must attach to parynchemal liver cells within ___ min.
after 8-15 days many malaria organisms will be in this form in the liver.
In malaria infection, when liver cells rupture, the fever is called what?
when merozoites travel to the RBC this is the start of the _________ cycle in malaria.
When sporozoites multiply by asexual reproduction in liver cells, this is known as the _________ cycle in malaria.
merozoites that enter the RBC develop into ring forms (young trophozoites) asexual multiplication occurs, what is this form called?
After several cycles of Schizonts malarial organisms begin forming ______ which is the infective form to mosquito.
these are male gametocytes in malaria?
these are female gametocytes in malaria.
This is the sexual stage of malaria that occurs inside the female anopheles mosquito.
when a mosquito bites a person infected with malaria, it ingests gametocytes which then form ______, these then become ookinete.
inside the mosquito, malarial ookinete become _______, which form sporozoites that migrate to salivary gland of mosquito.
This organism has killed more people worldwide than any other parasite.
After malarial infection with P. vivax and P. ovale, the dormant form is left in the ___________ cell after initial EE cycle.
Recrudescence occurs in P. malaria after _______ was applied.
General symptoms of malaria appear how many days after exposure?
What are nine symptoms of malaria?
chills, fever, sweats
paroxysm cycle occurs in 48 hours for what three organisms?
P. vivax (benign tertian)
P. ovale (benign tertian, ovale)
P. falciparum (malignant tertian)
Paroxysm cycle occurs in 72 hours for what organism.
P. malariae (quartan)
This is the most pathogenic malaria, highest mortality, black water fever.
HgB S, Thalassemia, and G6PD deficient people are associated with increased resistance to what parasite?
This is the classic relapsing fever malaria, may last a few weeks or a few months.
Fya and Fyb negative are resistant to what malaria?
this is the most common mixed malarial infection.
P. vivax and P. falciparum
These are red and pink granules usually present except in early ring forms of malaria.
Schuffner's dot (eosinophilic stippling)
in this malarial infection RBC is enlarged (1.5-2x) and oval, schuffner's dot is present. Trophozoite ring is 1/3 diameter of cell with heavy chromatin dot, and cytoplasmic circle around vacuole. 12-24 merzoites filling RBC.
In this malarial infection the microgametocyte is oval, and less staining, and macrogametocyte is oval, and darker blue.
Schuffner's dots are seen in what two malaria infections?
These are cytoplasmic precipitates, irregularly distributed red spots or clefts, seen in P. falciparum.
In this malaria, RBC is normal size, occasional maurer's dots, trophozite will have multiple ring forms in single RBC, and marginal or applique appearance. schizont is extremly rare in peripheral blood, 8-32 merozoites.
Gametocytes in this malarial infection will be banana or curved sausage shaped, black pigment near chromatin dot (central).
This malarial infection is similar to P. vivax. Trophozoite will have small cytoplasm that is thick and compact. Chromatin is large and heavy with single dot. Oval shaped and in Band form. Schizont will have 6-12 merozoites in a daisy or rosette form.
In this malaria, 60% RBCs are larger, 20% irregular frayed edges, schuffner's dots present in all stages. Schizont will have 8-12 merozoites in rosette/irregular clusters.