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What are the two ways commercial fermentation is performed?
- Production of bacteria and fungi as the end product
- Making commercially valuable compound by biotransformation
What are the two major types of fermenters and what is the application for each?
- Stirred tank reactor- Most common and relies on an agitator to circulate oxygen.
- Airlift fermenter- supplies oxygen to the culture through an intake valve at the bottom of the culture vessel
What are the two ways of culturing and collecting products from bioreactors?
- Bioreactors - nutrients fed into the fermenter while an equal volume of products, cells and medium are collected.
- Batch Culturing- cell, products, and medium are collected after fermentation is completed.
What is solid substrate fermentation?
For growing microorganisms on aerated solid (not submerged) substrate
What is a single-cell protein? (SPC)
It is a monoculture of microbes grown in a large scale to extract food and feed supplements for human or livestock.
What are some ways that the food industry improves food quality and production?
- More environmentally friendly manufacturing processes
- Better waste treatment
- Better assessment of food safety
- The use of natural flavors or colors
- The use of enzymes or emulsifiers
- Improved starter cultures for fermentation
How have they improved food related fermentation?
- Developing virus-resistant strains of bacteria
- Using some bacteria to kill other bacteria
- Using microorganisms as food additives
- Microbial enzymes produced through recombinant DNA
What are some products from microorganisms?
- Flavorings, Nutrients, colorings
- Therapeutic chemicals (insulin or growth factors)
- Metabolites, Enzymes, Antibiotics, Fuels, Biopolymers
What are the two types of metabolites and what does each do?
- Primary- made during growth phase and is essential to an organisms metabolism
- Secondary- Not essential to cell function or growth and usually made late in the growth cycle and is usually derived from primary metabolites
What are antibiotics?
They are small antimicrobial metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi
What are the three ways antibiotics kill bacteria?
- Disrupting the plasma membrane of microbes
- Inhibiting cell wall synthesis
- Inhibiting synthesis of metabolites such as protein, nucleic acids, or folic acids
What are possible new fuel that could be used?
- Methane- waste as nutrient for growth
- Hydrogen- produces energy and water
What are biopolymers?
The are reproduced by microorganisms and readily broken down.
What are the applications of PHA polymer?
- Carriers for fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides
- In surgery as sutures, pins, and staples
- Artificial blood vessels
- Capsules for pharmaceuticals
What are bioconversions?
It is a process of using microoganisms to alter organic compounds, and plant or animal waste into useful product or energy
What is microbial cell-surface display?
Foreign proteins are displayed on the surface of microbial or yeast cells by anchoring them to the cell-surface protein
What is ice-nucleating bacteria?
Bacteria that lives in plants and make proteins using bacteria to combat frost injury.
What are microbial pesticides and what is the concern in using them?
- They are used to combat pest using bacteria and virus in place of chemicals
- The concern is it could harm beneficial insects
What is Bacillus thuringienisis (the Bt gene)?
- It is a soil bacterium
- It produces endotoxins which are toxic to insects that eat it (not harmful to mammals, fish, birds)
What are the advantages of the Bt gene?
- The toxin doesn't last long so resistance doesn't develop
- There are many toxin's genes and genes created by recombinant DNA
- It allows for less chemical pesticide use
How is Baculosviruses used as a biopesticide?
- It infects mostly larval stages of insects.
- Very specific to insect
- Can be modified by transferring other toxin genes to the virus to increase effectiveness
What is bioremediation?
The process of reclaiming or cleaning up contaminated sites using microorganisms
What are the two major methods of bioremediation?
- The use of nutrients to encourage growth and enhance activity of bacteria already present in soil or water
- The addition of a bacteria to the polluted site
What are some Bioremediation applications?
- Degrade Oil Spills
- Wastewater treatment
- Removing toxic heavy metal and soil contamination
- Oil and mineral recovery
- Metal extraction