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Outlook that stressed the power of humanity, through the application of reason, to understand and improve its condition, and the power of the individual, granted sufficient liberty, to use reason in pursuit self-fulfillment.
Rousseau: "man was born free" "natural law"
German for "sensibility" used by some music historians to identify an aesthetic attitude prevalent in the mid 18th cent and reflected in much music of that time.
Focuses on detail and avoids thick textures and grandiose gestures.
Pleases the public
"amiable" or "pleasant"
Idea that others must come first.
Needs of the audience come before the needs of the composer.
coined phrase "Natural Law"
La serva padrona
Became an international genre which everyone country embraced except France.
- "Serious Opera"
- Musical Characteristics included:
- *strict division between recitative and aria
- *an emphasis on virtuoso singing, particulary in da capo arias
- *use of castrati
- *librettos drawn from ancient history or mythology
Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782)
Da Capo Aria
- Opera consisting of 3 sections.
- A section, constrasting B section, and a return of the A section.
In performance singers were expected to embellish and elaborate the notated music in the return of section A.
Challenged Opera Seria
New take on Opera
Christoph Willibald Gluck
Challenged Opera Seria. Wanted a fusion of the best of French, German and Italian Opera.
- *got rid of Da Capo Aria
- *borrowed seriousness from France & the importance of the orchestra
- * dancing MUST be a part of the story
- *incorporated choruses
- *orchestra much more integral
Heinrich Cristoph Koch
established Sonata Form (2 part form)
- Binary- 1 period (tonic), 2 period (dominant)
- Ternary- (exposition-development-recapitulation)
violinist and composer of symphonies
place to help foster the international success of symphony orchestras
observed that fingerings and bowings were uniform with the Mannheim orchestra
tells a story
- musical structure found in instrumental works
- wrote 555 sonatas
- worked for Princess of Portugal
worked for Frederick the Great, the King of Prussia
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia, patron of CPE Bach
- wrote symphonies not meant to be played before Operas.
- supported the Sinfonia as a public concert/forum.
- *sinfonia- fast-slow-fast
- Hammer strokes-loud chords in the opening.
Johann Christian Bach
- youngest son of JS Bach
- very influential on young Mozart
- influential on writing first piano concertos
- based on Galant style
Count Von Morzin
- Joseph Hadyn wrote 5 sym's for him
- haydn found 1st steady work as a composer
Maria Anna Keller
- Joseph Hadyn's wife
- was in love with her sister
"Like water for chocolate" storyline
Sister was going into clergy
Paul Anton Esterhazy
- Convinced count Morzin to release Haydn so Hadyn could work for him.
- Haydn wrote Morning, Noon, and Evening symp's for him.
patron of Haydn for 2 years
patron of Haydn
Major music enthusiast
Haydn wrote over 100 pieces for the baryton
Estate that Nicholas built
numberous music rooms, one for public performance and one for Nicholas. modeled after Versailles.
Father of W.A Mozart
Kleinmeister Composer (overshadowed by his contemporray)
Archbishop of Salzburg
1/2 paid for by noblemen, rest paid by concert goers
Mozart performed these
Lorenzo Da Ponte
Italian poet and librettist
wrote libretto for 28 operas
Marriage of Figaro is the most famous
French citizens led by Napoleon Bonaparte, were fed up with the extravagant lifestyle of King Louis XV and Marie Antoinette.
Revolutionaries killed royal family around 1792.
savior of French Revolution.
Artillery officer who overthrew Italy and German royalty.
Exporter of Revolutionary ideals
The Industrial Revolution
invention of steam engine,
Impact the Industrial Revolution had on music:
- *more sturdy pianos (made with reinforced steel) made in factories
- *more leisure time because machines were more efficient meant more time for concerts
Maximilian Franz, elector of Cologne
Prince Karl von Lichnowsky
Patron of Beethoven
The Heiligenstadt Testament
letter Beethoven wrote to his brothers where he says that he wants to commit suicide because he was going deaf, however stated that his "art" would not allow him to die.
"art as a savior"
Prince Franz Joseph con Lobkowitz
- Included spoken dialogue vs recitative
- Plot: set in the Netherlands
- Leonora must recuse her husband from jail to save society.
Cultivated revolutionary style in his music.
Opera with a plot of rescuing a heroic figure
architect of European council?
- led to a peaceful Europe.
- anti-democratic values.
- Spied on Beethoven (he was seen as a dangerous politcal figure)