Parsitology lesson 5.5

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Parsitology lesson 5.5
2010-11-02 16:23:11
Parasitology lesson NSHS MLT

Parasitology lesson 5.5
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  1. The flatworms
  2. The roundworms and threadworms.
  3. All the members of this group are called "flukes"
    Class trematoda
  4. All members of this group are called "tapeworms" in the adult stage this parasite live in the digestive tract of man.
  5. Commonly called roundworms.
    class Nematoda
  6. This is the Lung fluke or Oriental Lung Fluke.
    paragonimus westermani
  7. This organism is the liver fluke or oriental or chinese liver fluke
    Clonorchis sinensis
  8. These are intestinal flukes.
    Fasciolopsis buski
  9. This is the largest parasitic trematode.
    Fasciolopsis buski
  10. This is the blood fluke of pelvic veins.
    Schistosoma haematobium
  11. This is a condition of the excretory system, caused by Schistosoma haematobium when eggs are found in urine sediment.
  12. This is a blood fluke of the inferior mesenteric veins.
    Schistosoma mansoni
  13. This is the blood fluke of the superior mesenteric veins.
    Schistosoma japonicum
  14. true or false
    life cycles of all flukes are very similar.
  15. adult trematode are harbored in what type of animal?
  16. Trematode eggs are deposited in water, most eggs are ____________.
  17. This is the stage in trematode swim to first intermediate host (snail).
  18. This is the Trematode stage after miracidium, asexual reproduction occurs.
  19. In trematodes these are produced by asexual reproduction.
    • sporocysts
    • rediae
  20. In the Trematode life cycle, rediae turn into this form which leaves the 1st IH.
  21. Cercaria transfer to 2nd IH, in the trematode life cycle, what are the two 2nd IH?
    • aquatic animal
    • vegetation
  22. inside the second intermediate host, trematode take on what form?
  23. This is the form of trematode in which the animal or vegetable is eaten by the definitve host.
  24. This is the developmental stage of Trematode known as a germ cell. organism is enclosed and surrounded by a yolk. may have operculum or spine (specific).
  25. This is the developmental stage of Trematode, that is ciliated, pyriform shape. Secretes enymes in snail, forms sporocyst, diverticulated gut and usually a tail.
  26. This is the develomental stage of trematode that is saclike, asexual reproduction occurs.
  27. This is the develomental stage of trematode when the pharynx, primitive gut, excretory system and germinal cells develop.
  28. Rdiae asexually produces more rediae or __________.
  29. This is the develomental stage of trematode that emerges from snail, encysts, and penetrates next host. possess oral and ventral suckers, mouth, pharynx, diverticulated gut, and tail.
  30. definitive hosts for Paragonimus wetermani are _________ such as dogs, aquatic mammals, mongoose, rats, possums.
  31. worms of this organism migrate to lungs and other organs of the body, pair up and produce eggs which man passes via sputum or feces.
    Pragonimus westermani
  32. Paragonimus westermani is pathogenic in what regions?
    far east
  33. In P. westermani there is little damage during migration from abdominal cavit to the lungs, but large amounts of damage during migration involving what organ?
    the brain
  34. P. westermani causes fibrotic lesions in what organ?
  35. The ova of this organism is oval, golden brown in color, and thick shelled, shoulders are distinct but not pronounced, distinctly operculated. 85x55um.
    P. westermani
  36. What is another name for Clonorchis sinensis, Chinese/oriental liver fluke.
    Opisthorchis sinensis
  37. adult forms of Clonorchis sinensis live in what part of the body?
    bile duct
  38. Ova of Clonorchis sinensis are passed with feces and must reach fresh ______ to survive.
  39. when Cercaria of C. sinensis emerge from 1st IH it attaches to what 2nd IH?
    • scales of fish
    • Crustaceans
  40. Clonorhis sinensis is ingested by _________ of raw, uncooked fish or crustacean, excyst in small intestine, and migrates to common bile duct and matures.
  41. inflammatory reactions of Clonorchis sinensis is caused by what two things?
    • attachment
    • feeding behavior
  42. Clonorchis sinensis is a parasite of fish eating mammals and humans in what part of the world?
    eastern asia
  43. This is a light yellow-brown, bulb shaped egg with pronounced shoulders, operculum is distinct, apopercular knob or nipple-like projection located opposite the operculum. 29x16u, adult is 1-2.5 cm.
    Clonorchis sinensis
  44. This fluke lives in the columnar epithelium of small intestines. definitive host is humans, hogs, or dogs.
    Fasciolopsis buski
  45. eggs of Fasciolopsis buski hatch within ______ weeks, miracidium penetrates in hours or dies.
  46. what is the first and second intermediate host of F. buski?
    • Snail
    • littoral vegetation
  47. Humans become infected by ingesting the encysted _________ of Fasciolopsis buski.
  48. This is the disorder caused by F. buski, characterized by obstruction of the common bile duct and small intestine, abdomina, distress, diarrhea, nausea and hypoproteinemia.
  49. Fasciolopsis buski is seen is what region of the world?
  50. This organism feeds on intestinal contents, charcot-lyden crystals may be seen, and tissue injuries resemble peptic ulcer.
    Fasciolopsis buski
  51. This is the largest intestinal trematode to infect man.
    Fasciolopsis buski
  52. How is diagnosis of Fasciolopsis buski made?
    finding eggs in feces
  53. the ova of this organism is yellowish, ellipsoidal in shape, with a clear, thin shell with small operculum at one end. approx 140x85u
    Fasciolopsis buski
  54. This blood fluke is found in the veins of the GU system
    Schistosoma haematobium
  55. This blood fluke is found in the veins of the large intestines
    schistosoma mansoni
  56. this blood fluke is found in the veins of the small intestines
    Schistosoma japonicum
  57. These adult worms reside in pairs lodged in terminal venules 0.6-2.5 cm long.
  58. this gender of shistosome is larer, grayish, ahd has a cylindrical anterior end.
  59. this gener of Schistosome is darker, and slender.
  60. copulation of Schistosomes occurs in the ____________ canal (male).
  61. how many Schistosome eggs are passed into the venules, amound depends on the species.
  62. when this happens shistosome eggs move into perivascular tissues of intestines or baldder.
    venule walls rupture
  63. Shistosome eggs are passsed via what two ways?
    • feces
    • urine
  64. Schistosome Miracidia hatch from eggs upon contact with fresh _______.
  65. Schistosome Miracidia must penetrate an appropriate snail host within __ hours.
  66. cercaria of this organism have a forked tail, loses infectvity for vertebrate host within 24-36 hours.
  67. What form of schistosome is contracted to human skin via bathing, swimming, working.
  68. Cercaria of Schistosomes attach; burrow down to peripheral _________ bed.
  69. if ingested with water, cercaria penetrate, _______________ of mouth and throat.
    mucous membranes
  70. Cercaria of Schistosomes develop into _____________.
  71. This form of Schistosome is transported to the right ventricle and lungs via afferent blood.
  72. Schistosomula squeeze through pulmonary capillaries, join systemic circulation and find their way to the _______ vesses, feed and grow rapidly.
  73. how many weeks after skin exposure do adolecent shistosomes worm into the mesenteric, vesical and pelvic venules.
    3 weeks
  74. Adult Schistosomes may live as long as ___ years in human host.
  75. what is the average lifespan of Schistosomes?
    3-10 years
  76. Schistosomes of humans collectively cause a condtion known as what?
  77. distribution of Schistosomes is dependent upon the range of what host?
  78. This organism cuases vesical schistosomiasis, AKA schistosomal hematuria or urinary bilharziasis.
    Schistosoma hematobium
  79. This organism is highly endemic in the nile valley; in areas of egypt and the rest of africa 75-95% of inhabitants may be infected.
    Schistosoma hematobium
  80. Eggs of this Schistosome is large, non-operculated, transparent shell. prominent terminal spine. eggs deposited in the vesicle plexuses.
    S. hematobium
  81. This organism is detected from concentrated urine specimens, produces lesions in bladder, genitalia, and sometimes rectum.
    S. hematobium
  82. This organism causes intestinal bilharziasis, and is les widely spread in africa than S. hematobium, also establishe din many areas of south america and west indies.
    S. mansoni
  83. Eggs of this Schistosome can be recovered in feces and rectal biopsy. They are large; non-operculate; transparent shell and have a prominent lateral spine.
    S. mansoni
  84. Due to a low number of S. mansoni eggs in feces concentration methods or _______ biopsies are recommended.
  85. This organism causes Katayama disease, AKA oriental schistosomiasis; schistosomiasis japonica.
    S. japonicum
  86. Distribution if this Schistosome is confined to Far east, highly endemic in central china, to a smaller extent in philippines and indonesia.
    S. japonicum
  87. Eggs of this Schistosome are large, round, non-operulate. There is a small, inconspicuous spine (sometimes difficult to see). eggs can be recovered in feces or rectal biopsy specimens.
    S. japonicum
  88. Distinct characteristics of this developmental stage aids in diagnosis of cestodes.
  89. Solid larvae classes are seen only in what cestode?
    D. latum
  90. In this solid larvae class, larva is ciliated in cestodes.
  91. This is a spindle-like, solid larva of cestodes.
  92. This is a solid worm like body without hooklets.
  93. This is a slightly developed bladder and solid posterior end of cestodes.
  94. This is formed by enlargement of central cavity. this is true bladder larva of cestodes.
  95. in this larvae class cyst containing scolices developed from germinal layer of cyst wall.
  96. In this larval class germinal layer produces cysts which give rise to several scolices.
    Echinococcus/hydatid cyst
  97. What are the two vesicular (bladder) larvae classes.
    • Cystecercoid
    • Cytsticercus
  98. This is the organ of attachment (between host and parasite)
    Scolex/scoleces (head)
  99. true or false
    Cestoda have suckers, hooks and rostellum
  100. Which Cestoda organism has suctorial grooves or bothria?
    Diphyllobotrium latum
  101. This is the growth region of a Cestoda, proglottid originate and it progressively matures.
  102. In Cestoda this his is the part of the neck that contains ova.
  103. In Cestoda, this is a chain of proglottids (segments of tapeworm)
  104. Each proglottid of a cestoda contains what three organs of reproduction.
    • ovaries
    • uterus
    • testes
  105. Adult D. latum reside in what part of the body attached ot the villi.
    small instestine
  106. In D. latum this must be ingested by microscopic crustacean within 9.12 days (1st IH)
  107. inside the microcrustacean, D. latum coracidium will develop into ______ larva.
  108. What is the second IH for D. latum?
    freshwater fish
  109. Inside the fish, D. latum procercoid turns into ___________ larva.
  110. Man is infected with D. latum by ingestion of raw or half cooked ______. In small intestine the plerocercoid larva develops into adult.
  111. True or false
    D. latum infection is usually limited to a single worm.
  112. Deficiency of this vitamin is seen in D. latum patients.
  113. Laboratory diagnosis of D. latum is based on what two things?
    finding operculated eggs
  114. D. latum has an oval, indistinctly __________ ova. the abopercular knob is hard to see, more like protrusion at the base of the shell.
  115. This is the only cestode with an operculated ova.
    D. latum
  116. This ivory or gray-yellow worm is the longest of human tapeworms (3-10 meters).
    D. latum
  117. The proglottids of D. latum are broader than long. the ventral genital pore is close to the middle, and the uterus is ________ shaped.
  118. The scolex of this organism is elliptical/spoon shaped (leaf like).
    D. latum
  119. D. latum scolex has 2 longitudinal slit-like grooves called what?
  120. Adult Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) reside in what part of the body.
    small intestine
  121. Gravid proglottids or ova of T. saginata must reach a grazing where _______ ingest prglottids with ova or ova only.
  122. The ova of T. saginata has a __________ larva developed inside it.
  123. What is the first IH of T. saginata.
  124. exacanth larva of T. sgainata take on this infective form inside 1st IH.
    cysticercus larva
  125. Man is infected by T. saginata by ingesting raw or undercooked beef containg _________ larva.
  126. cysticercus of T. saginata turns into the adult form in small intestine about ___ months
  127. true or false
    ingestion of T. saginata ova will cause infection in man.
  128. persons infected by T. saginata may be asymptomatic or experience what two symptoms.
    • nausea
    • vomiting
  129. Diagnosis of T. saginata is based on what two things?
    • gravid proglottids
    • eggs from feces or perianal region
  130. T. saginata ova is a yellow-brown eggs that are spherical in shape with three pairs of hooks. it has a thick shell that is ___________.
    radially pitted
  131. the proglottids of this Cestoda are longer than broad, there is a single genital pore that alternates irregularly on the lateral margin, 15-30 uterine branches.
    T. saginata
  132. What part of the proglottid differentiates T. solium from T. saginata?
    T. saginata has 15-30 uterine branches
  133. This Cestoda has a pear shaped scolex with four suckers and no hooks.
    T. saginata
  134. What is the only known definitive host of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm)?
  135. This organism is similar to T. saginata except intermediate host is pig or hog.
    T. solium
  136. ingestion of raw or undercooked pork containing _________ larva results in infection of T. solium.
  137. In man, Ingestion of ova results in larval infection of this Cestoda.
    T. solium
  138. T. solium penetrates small intestine and enter circulation as what?
  139. This Cestoda will infect organs such as brain, heart, lungs, and striated muscles, develop into cysticerci.
    T. solium
  140. Cysticerci of T. solium that infects this organ tend to grow better than those in other tissue.
  141. This condtion caused by T. solium affects brain, eyes, spinal cord and meninges. Cysticerci calcify and die in two years causing an acute inflammation of the brain.
  142. Proglottids of this Cestoda are smaller in size, has 5-13 uterine branches, and lateral genital pores alternate regularly.
    T. solium
  143. This Cestoda has a pear shaped scolex that is 1mm in diameter with 4 cup-like suckers and a Rostellum with hooks.
    T. solium
  144. This Cestoda commonly has a direct life cycle, infection is caused by ingestion of embryonated ova that hatch in small intestine as hexacanth larva which release onchospere which penetrate villus and become cercomers.
    Hymenolepsis nana (dwarf tapeworm)
  145. true or false
    no intermediate host is required for infection by Hymenolepis nana.
  146. This is the most common tapeworm in the US, auto infection can take place. It causes growth retardation in children.
    Hymenolepis nana
  147. The ova of this Cestode has an outer and inner shell. Inner shell has polar knobs from which filaments arise, embryo exhibits 6 hooklets present inside inner shell, called hexacanth larva.
    H. nana
  148. What is the size of H. nana?
    20x0.7 mm
  149. This organism has the smallest proglottids of the tapeworms.
    H. nana
  150. This Cestode has a pear shaped scolex with one armed row of hooks, 4 cup-like suckers, and a retractile rostellum.
    H. nana
  151. The life cycle of this Cestode is similar to that of H. nana, but requires an arthropod intermediate host to complete life cycle.
    Hymenolepis diminuta
  152. What are the three arthropod intermediate host for H. diminuta?
    • rat and mouse fleas
    • Mealworm beetle
    • four moths/beetles
  153. This Cestode causes light, accidental infections in humans that last for 5-7 weeks.
    H. diminuta
  154. Eggs of this Cestoda are differentiated from H. nana ova by the absence of polar filaments on the inner membrane.
    H. diminuta
  155. The scolex of this Cestoda has a club-shaped, unarmed rostellum with 4 small suckers.
    H. diminuta
  156. definitive hosts of this Cestoda are dogs, cats, and wild carnivores. Humans are occasional hosts (particularly small children).
    Dipylidium caninum (dog tapeworm)
  157. In this Cestoda, gravid prglottids are passed intact in the feces or emerge from the periana region of the host. Egg packets are released.
    Dipylidium caninum
  158. What is the intermediate host for D. caninum?
    dog or cat flea
  159. Vertebrate hosts of D. caninum become infected how?
    ingesting contaminated adult flea
  160. D. caninum develops into adult tapeworm in the small intestine of the vertebrate host. maturity is reached how long after infection?
    1 month
  161. Egg capsules of D. caninum contain how many eggs?
    15-25 eggs
  162. Adults of this Cestoda are found in the small intestine of dogs by eating herbivore organs containing cysts.
    Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid cyst)
  163. oncospheres of this Cestoda develop into cysts in the lungs and liver which may be fatal due to possible anaphylactic shock.
    E. granulosus (hytdatid cyst)
  164. This is the smallest tapeworm of medical importance.
    E. granulosus (Hydatid cyst)
  165. adult forms of this Cestoda have a body that is devided into a head, neck, and three proglottids, all three parts are seen as a single unit on the low power of a microscope.
    E. granulosus
  166. the scolex of this organism has a prominent rostellum, and a double crown of 30-36 hooks and four prominent suckers.
    E. granulosus
  167. Cyst of this Cestoda has an external laminated, non nucleated hyaline, supporting cuticula.
    E. granulosus
  168. This cestoda is found in the presence of slow growing cystic tumor associated with dogs.
    E. granulosus
  169. Ultrasound is useful for detection of what cestoda?
    hydatid cysts
  170. Which Cestoda can be detected through serological testing (IgG and IgM antibodies)?
    E. granulosus