MS1, Block 2 Cholinergic Drugs

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BigDee
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46462
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MS1, Block 2 Cholinergic Drugs
Updated:
2010-11-02 11:04:35
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Cholinergic drugs
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  1. Choline esters
    • Acetylcholine
    • Bethanechol
    • Carbachol
    • Methacholine
    • (ABCM)
  2. Anticholinesterase agents (agents that indirectly increase cholinergic function)
    Reversible agents
    • Physostigmine
    • Neostigmine
    • Edrophonium
    • Ambenonium
    • Pyridostigmine
    • Donepezil
    • Tacrine
  3. Naturally occurring cholinergic stimulants
    • Muscarine
    • Nicotine
    • Pilocarpine
  4. Choline ester that is partially refractory to AChase breakdown and is valuable as an experimental tool.
    Methacholine
  5. Choline ester that is very refractory AChase breakdown and has mostly nicotinic stimulating effects.
    Carbachol
  6. Choline ester with well established clinical utility. Refractory to AChase inactivation and has mostly muscarinic stimulating effects.
    Bethanechol
  7. Useful in treating post-operative urinary retention and atony of the GI tract.
    Bethanechol
  8. Naturally occurring cholinergic stimulant that activates all autonomic ganglia and stimulation of skeletal muscle.
    Nicotine
  9. Naturally occurring cholinergic stimulant that will stimulate all innervated and non-innervated muscarinic receptors.
    Muscarine
  10. Good antidote for rapid onset type (muscarine) poisoning.
    Atropine
  11. Naturally occurring cholinergic stimulant that selectively activates muscarinic receptors. Highly charged and readily crosses membrane barriers.
    Pilocarpine
  12. Cholinergic stimulant used to treat glaucoma.
    Pilocarpine
  13. Reversible AChase inhibitors
    • Physostigmine
    • Neostigmine
    • Edrophonium
    • Pyriostigmine
    • Donepezil
    • Tacrine
    • (DENT are PPs)
  14. AChase inhibitor that is not highly charged (teritary amine) and can readily enter the CNS.
    Physostigmine
  15. AChase inhibitor used for treatment of atropine poisoning.
    Physostigmine
  16. AChase inhibitor that is charged (quaternary amine) and does not readily enter the CNS.
    Neostigmine
  17. AChase inhibitor used to reverse actions of competitive neuromuscular blocking (curare-like) drugs.
    Neostigmine
  18. Long-acting AChase inhibitor used to treat myasthenia gravis.
    Pyridostigmine
  19. AChase inhibitor with a short duration of action that is valuable for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.
    Edrophonium
  20. CNS acting AChase inhibitors that are used to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's patients.
    Donepezil and Tacrine
  21. Irreversible AChase inhibitor used to treat glaucoma, but restricted to aphakic eyes due to high incidence of cataract formation.
    Echothiophate
  22. Irreversible AChase inhibitors that are commonly used as insecticides
    Parathion and Malathion
  23. Potent anti-cholinesterase war gases.
    Sarin and Soman
  24. AChase reactivator that is used to treat intoxication by organophosphates.
    Pralidoxime (2-PAM)
  25. Prototypical muscarinic blocking drug that produces CNS excitation resulting in slight paradoxical bradycardia.
    Atropine
  26. Characteristics of atropine poisoning.
    Hot, dry skin. Dilated pupils.Maniacal behavior. (Red as a beet, hot as a pistol, dry as a bone, and mad as a hatter)
  27. Muscarinic blocker that causes CNS depressant effects.
    Scopolamine
  28. Muscarinic blocker used to treat motion sickness.
    Scopolamine
  29. Less potent and short-acting muscarinic blocker used to cause mydriasis and cycloplegia for ophthalmological exams.
    Tropicamide
  30. Synthetic muscarinic antagonists that do not enter the CNS and are used primarily in patients with COPD.
    Ipratropium and Tiotropium
  31. Second line drug for treatment of bronchial asthma. Appears to be beneficial when combined with other bronchodilators.
    Ipratropium
  32. Longer duration of action than Ipratropium and can be used as a once/day drug.
    Tiotropium
  33. CNS acting muscarinic blocker that is used to relieve symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
    Benztropine
  34. Muscarinic blocker used to treat spasms of the bladder after urologic surgery and in some neurological disorders producing bladder hyperactivity.
    Oxybutynin
  35. Prototypic ganglionic blocking drug. Does not compete with ACh at nicotinic receptors at the endplate region of skeletal muscle.
    Hexamethonium (H6)
  36. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on arterioles
    • Sympathetic
    • Vasodilation
  37. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on veins
    • Sympathetic
    • Dilation
  38. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on the heart
    • Parasympathetic
    • Tachycardia
  39. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on the iris
    • Parasympathetic
    • Mydriasis
  40. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on ciliary muscle of the eye
    ParasympatheticCycloplegia
  41. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on the GI tract
    • Parasympathetic
    • Reduced tone and motility
  42. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on the urinary bladder
    • Parasympathetic
    • Urinary retention
  43. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on salivary glands
    • Parasympathetic
    • Xerostomia
  44. Predominant tone and effect of ganglionic blockade on the sweat glands
    • Parasympathetic
    • Anhidrosis

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