525 exam 1 drugs

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525 exam 1 drugs
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2010-11-01 19:42:26
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525 exam 1 drugs
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  1. lecture 1, dr. richard: insomnia drugs benzodiazepine hypnotics
    • enhances GABA
    • cons = tolerance, addiction, some have long duration (hard to wake up)
    • 1. Temazepam: short acting, 2-3 hr half life
    • 2. Lorazepam: intermediate, 8-20 hr half life
    • 3. less used: long acting, 24 hr+ half life
  2. lecture 1, dr. richard: insomnia drugs non-benziodiazepine hynotics
    • enhances GABA
    • pros = no tolerance or addiction, and only 2-3 hour half life!!! so you don't feel as drowsy, easier to wake up from
    • 1. Zolpidem (AmbienTM)
    • 2. Eszopiclone (LunestaTM)
  3. lecture 1, dr. richard: insomnia drugs melatonin receptor agonist
    • melatonin is important for sleep and circadian rhythm
    • pro = no addictive potential
    • 1. Ramelteon (RozeremTM)
  4. lecture 1, dr. richard: insomnia drugs antihistamines
    • 1st generation, crosses blood brain barrier... makes you sedated and drowsy
    • pro = OTC
    • 1. diphenhydramine (BenadrylTM): active agent of almost all OTC/insomnia/sleep aid/PM drugs
  5. lecture 1, dr. richard: periodic limb movement disorder dopamine receptor mediated drugs
    • 1. Levodopa/carbidopa combo: dopamine precursors
    • 2. Pramipexole (MirapexTM): dopamine agonist
    • 3. Ropinirole (RequipTM): dopamine agonist
    • all three drugs causes the increase in levels of dopamine
  6. lecture 1, dr. richard: periodic limb movement disorder GABA receptor mediated drugs
    • 1. Gabapentin: GABA like
    • 2. Baclofen: GABA agonist
    • 3. Tiagabine: GABA enhacer
    • all three inhibit action potentials in the brain
  7. lecture 1, dr. richard: treatments for restless leg syndrome
    • 1. iron
    • 2. Pramipexole (MirapexTM): dopamine agonist
    • 3. Ropinirole (RequipTM): dopamine agonist
    • 4. others = similar to those for periodic leg movement disorder
  8. lecture 1, dr. richard: sleep apnea medical treatment
    • CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure
    • machine that forces air into lungs just like during CPR
  9. lecture 1, dr. richard: sleep apnea surgical treatment
    • remove fatty tissues and tonsils
    • controversial... only 50/50 feedback or chance
    • more like a potential treatment
  10. lecture 1, dr. richard: sleep apnea pharmacological treatment
    • antidepressants that increase NE and seratonin
    • stimulants that decrease GABA
  11. lecture 1, dr. richard: narcolepsy treatment
    • increase NE levels to increase wakefulness and alertness
    • 1. Amphetamine (AdderalTM): reverses NE/Do(Sero) reuptake transporters
    • 2. Methylphenidate (RitalinTM): reverses NE/Do(Sero) reuptake transporters
    • 3. Atomoxetine (StratteraTM): inhibits NE reuptae transporters
  12. lecture 1, dr. richard: ADHD treatment
    • increase NE levels to increase wakefulness and alertness
    • 1. Amphetamine (AdderalTM): reverses NE/Do(Sero) reuptake transporters
    • 2. Methylphenidate (RitalinTM): reverses NE/Do(Sero) reuptake transporters
    • 3. Atomoxetine (StratteraTM): inhibits NE reuptae transporters
  13. lecture 1, dr. richard: alzheimer's disease, treatment for mild to moderate
    • 1. Donepezil (AriceptTM): acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, causes an increase in ACh
    • improves cognition but doesn't slow the progression of the disease
  14. lecture 1, dr. richard: alzheimer's disease, treatment for severe
    1. Memantine (NamendaTM): NMDA antagonist that decreases glutamate excitotoxicity to slow the progression of the disease
  15. lecture 2, dr. nickola: bacterial meningitis treatment
    • 1. Rifampin: antibiotic
    • other treatments... steroids, i.v. fluids and preventative vaccines (HiB for children, Meningococcal for college, and Pneumococcal for elderly)
  16. lecture 2, dr. nickola: herpes zoster (shingles) treatment
    • 1. Acyclovir: anti-viral drugs
    • 2. NSAIDS for pain
    • 3. preventative varicella vaccine

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