MFG 201 Test 2

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njarrett
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MFG 201 Test 2
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2010-11-01 18:01:14
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BYU History of Creativity Exam 2
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  1. Gracchus brothers
    Two brothers (that attempted to overthrow the senate) both were assassinated. The older, Tiberius, was mad at the senate for not passing his legislation and when it did not pass in the plebs he decided to try and do it by force. His brother, Gaius, upon the assasination of Tiberius decided to finish what his brother started and eventually he and 3000 supporters were killed in a riot
  2. Judas Maccabeus
    Father Mattathias denied Antiochus IV decree to worship only pagan gods. JM led the Maccabean revolt. The day they captured Jerusalem and cleansed the temple is now commemorated as Hanukkah
  3. Julius Caesar
    Cesaerean section named after him. Ordered by the senate to stand trial in Rome for various charges. Caesar marched from Gaul to Italy with his legions to stop Pompey, crossing the Rubicon 49 BC. This sparked a civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world.
  4. Laocoön and His Sons
    a sculpture that depicts the story of a Trojan priest who, along with his sons, tried to warn the Trojans not to accept the Trojan horse from the Greeks. Poseidon, who hated the Trojans, did not want to plan of the Greeks to be foiled, so he sent snakes to Laocoon to kill him. Great emotion and action-typical Hellenistic style.
  5. Mark Anthony
    was Caesar's chief assistant.He and Octavian successfully defeated the conspirators and began to rule Rome together. Lost support of the people because of his affair with Cleopatra.
  6. Mattahias
    denied the decree sent out by Antiochus IV that forbade Jews from worshiping their God. Gathered a following that openly rebelled agaisnt Antiochus. Later rebellion taken over by his son, Judas Maccabeus
  7. Maximus
    (Hellenised as Maximos) is the Latin term for "greatest"or "largest"
  8. Mecca
    Birthplace of the prophet Mohammed. Originally an important religious site for the pagan and tribal Arabs. Mohammed would later capture this city andestablish an Islamic community. Place where the Ka’ba is located which is the holiest site in Islam.
  9. Medina
    Originally known as the city of Yathrib, but eventually Mohammed converted enough of the regions population that the city was renamed to Medina, meaning“City of the Prophet”. Place of the first Muslim community. Also place of the first mosque.
  10. Messiah
    the anointed one, Jew’s promised deliverer. Son of God, Jesus Christ
  11. Mohammed-
    Islam’s great prophet. During the month of Ramadan went up into Mount Hirato contemplate. There the angel Gabriel visited him and gave him instructionsthat later became the Qur’an. Originally lived in Mecca but had to flee toYathrib for fear for his life. There he taught people and became a greatprophet so much that they renamed the city Medina meaning “City of theProphet”. When he had gathered enough followers he attacked the city of Meccaand smashed all the pagan statues.
  12. Mosque-
    means “place of kneeling”
  13. Muslim-
    “One who surrenders or submits his will to Allah”. One who believes in thereligion of Islam.
  14. Nicene Council
    declared that God the Son was begotten of the Father’s substance, that Godis one object in Himself and three objects to Himself, and thatthe Trinity is the fundamental miracle of the world.
  15. Nike Revolt
    “victory”.The revolt that happened in the Hippodrome against Justinian for imprisoningthe leaders of two chariot racing groups. His actions of slaughtering all therebels at once was considered one of the bloodiest thing ever decreed by anemperor against his own people.
  16. Oculus
    The opening at the top of the Pantheon in the rotunda that allowed naturallight to enter.
  17. Optimates
    believed old rules and gov structure were important to maintain, since theyreflected the values of Rome; piety, bravery, discipline, frugality, absence ofgreed, never fighting wars of aggression, and never quiting in the face of adversity
  18. Origen
    many gentile converts didn't know many answers about their religion, sothey would revert to their old ways to interpret the scripture. The churchfather, Origen, based on their teachings on Greek philosophy.
  19. Ottomans
    major power in Islam after the Abbasids. Conquered the entire byzantine empire
  20. Parchment
    Tanned animal skins which were bound on one side to form what is now a book
  21. Peripatetics
    Another name for the Aristotelians mean “those that wander around” becausethey wandered the world seeking knowledge
  22. Pharisees
    They would not accommodate the Greeks, they believed in strict observanceof the law and also believed in ressurrection
  23. Philip of Macedonia
    father of Alexander the Great
  24. Plebians
    the non land holders: artisans, merchants, soldiers, tenant farmers andother common people of Rome
  25. Pliny
    Christians should not be persecuted but rather ignored. And if they offer a sacrifice then they will be let go.
  26. Pompey
    (The City that was destroyed by the erruption of mt Vesuvius was Pompeii.) Pompeywas a popular Roman general who, together with Julius Caesar and Crassusruled Rome as the unofficial triumvirate. After Crassus died Pompey and Caesar warred for power, and Pompey was eventually killed in Egypt while fleeing Caesar.
  27. Pontifex Maximus
    the chief religous official of Rome. elected by patricians1 year term. set the religiouscalendar, selected priests, selected vestal vergins, and conducted judicialproceedings against members of the priesthood
  28. Pantheon
    It was a temple to all the ancient gods of rome, it has the rotundaand the oculus.
  29. Pontius Pilate
    Was the roman leader that authorized the Crucifixion of christ
  30. Populares
    were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who relied on the people's assemblies and tribunate to acquire political power. They are regarded in modern scholarship as inopposition to the optimates, who are identified with the conservative interests of a senatorial elite. The populares themselves, however, were also of senatorial rankand might be patricians or noble plebeians.
  31. Praetorian Guard
    first professional guard of the roman empire created by Augustus
  32. Principate
    is the period of rule of ceaser augustus(pg166)
  33. Proconsul
    new postion made for ceasar augustus similar to that of the consul where he was directing all foreign affairs but also had much say in the day to day of rome
  34. Ptolemy
    Roman scientist who identified the orbits of the planets(the defferent andepicycles) and was fairly accurate as to their position in the sky but stillhad everything rotating about the earth.
  35. Ptolemaic kingdom
    It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state stretching fromsouthern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia.
  36. Punic wars
    War between carthage and the roman empire it is a set of three wars andmarked the change of power from carthage to rome, these were the first wars ofexpansion for rome
  37. Pyrrhus:
    This king attacked italy early in the roman empire and he won easily atfirst but had to wait for the winter and when he attacked rome in the spring hewas met with a bigger army but was able to defeat them but had to stop againfor winter the third time they won again and although he won the loss of menwas to great so he sailed back to greece
  38. Qur’an (Koran) -
    Islamic teachings which were conveyed to mankind through a man named Mohammad
  39. Ravenna -
    Emporer Honorius decided tomove the captial of the west from Rome to Ravenna, a seaport on the Adriaticcoast
  40. Ramadan
    Holy month during which members of Islam fast during daylight (from food,water and other worldly pleasures)
  41. Romulus Augustus
    He was the last emporer of the western rome who transported his isignia andoffice to the east upon his defeat by the ostrogoths
  42. Rubicon
    river that was the division of the roman empire and italy if any generalcrossed it it was punishable by death. Julius ceaser had a vision ofvictory and proceeded anyway. said “the die is cast” when he crossed.
  43. St. Augustine
    He was a sinner and did not believe but eventually was converted and hewrote CIty of God as well as Confession, he is also responsible for thedoctrine of Original Sin
  44. St. Benedict
    Wrote the rules that govern modern Roman Catholic Monasticism
  45. Stoicism
    The Stoics considered destructive (any, really) emotions to be the resultof errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral andintellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions
  46. Sunnis
    Was the first group to rule after the death of mohammad believed that anyjust man could serve as the leader of islam. They opposed the shiites and ALI
  47. Tacitus
    Was a great roman historian, wrote his histories to be entertainingand included is own feelings. He was not objective like the greathistorian thucydides had been.
  48. Taj Mahal -
    Perhaps the most famous Islamic building. Built in the sixteenth centuryin Agra, India by a Mughal leader as a tomb for his wife. The building isperfectly symmetrical and balanced structure made from white marble extensivelyand beautifully inlaid with a flower motif consisting of semi-precious stones,gold, and silver.
  49. Talmud -
    the rabbinical commentaries that assist in understanding the Torah
  50. Theodora -
    Wife of Justinian, encouraged Justinian to crush the Nike Revolt insteadof flee
  51. Theodoric the Goth-
    He was the king of the ostrogoths who took over the western part of rome,signing a treaty of non agression with the emperor of the east inconstantinople. Even though he was subject to the east he was freeto do as he pleased
  52. Theodosius I-
    Was the roman emperor who made christianity the official religion of thestate. He had to seek forgiveness after he killed almost 7000 menin the hippodome because they had revolted
  53. Tiberius-
    successor of Augustus, over time he would loose the support of the senate.Eventually retiring leaving the government to sejanus who went insane, sotiberius was forced out of retirement and named Gaius his successor
  54. Torah -
    Jewish scripture that refersto the five books of Moses - the entirety of Judaism’s founding legal andethical religious texts
  55. Trajan-
    Roman Emperor, who is best known for his public building expansion, he was a popular general so his victories unified the senate and the military.
  56. Tribune-
    were the ten men who were elected by the plebs who oversaw the running ofthe city of Rome
  57. Trimuvirate-
    Caesar and Crassus’ union with Pompey. They ruled Rome together. They were successful in reducing the influence of their enemies in theSenate.
  58. Umayyad-
    Was a dynasty of islam, they moved the center to damascus, they wereenemies to the shiites because they had defeated them in the war of the Caliphsor the four islam leaders
  59. Vandals-
    A Barbarian group to enter the roman Empire. They were Germans whosettled into North Africa and then invaded Italy and sacked Rome. Theyretired Afterwards and then ruled North Africa following the final defeat ofthe west in 476 A.D. It was the group that Belsarius was sent to conquerin Africa.
  60. Vespasian-
    (Pg. 171) One of three Flavian emperors following the Julio Claudians. Constructionof the Roman Colosseum was begun from treasury gained through taxes he imposed.
  61. Victory at Samothrace-
    Famous Greek Hellenistic sculpture showing how art became more realisticand emotional from the classical period.
  62. Asceticism-
    Shunning luxury and complexity while retaining some value of sensory perceptions
  63. Abassid-
    a Muslim leader that built the capitol in Baghdad, united the Shi’ites and gained the support of the Sunnis against the corruption that had crept into the Umayyad reign. Focused on arts, sciences, and other cultural aspect of life. Assumed control throughout all of Islam except Spain. (Abbasid Dynasty=Islam’s Golden Age)
  64. Aeneas-
    Character in the Aeneid. Written by Virgil. Forced onto his Journey when Troy was destroyed. Left on a quest to find a new home for his people and Gods. His wife was killed.Ship wrecked in Carthage, Married queen Dido, left Carthage and ended up in Latium, the western coast of Italy. Married the King’s Daughter and settled down. He is a moderate Character that only does what he is forced to do by fate and circumstance. Shows that the Romans were content with the simple and the practical.
  65. Alexander the Great-
    Son of Phillip II (ruler of Greece); student of Aristotle; one of leading Macedonian generals (became general at age 16) and a creative leader. His planning coupled with his intense desires for accomplishment led to his greatness. Alexander wanted world domination. Alexander’s qualities and conquests are on pages 110-114.
  66. Alexandria-
    city in Egypt; rival to Antioch, known for its many libraries. All ships that stopped at the port were searched for documents, which were then copied. Rivaled with Pergamum (this rivalry led to the invention of parchment). Had a 400 ft lighthouse (one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world).
  67. Alexandrian scientists-
    AKA Hellenistic scientists. (See Euclid and Archimedes)
  68. Ali-
    (pg. 232) cousin of Muhammad, married to Muhammad’s daughter. Ali readily accepted the message Muhammad got from the gods (Islam). Was supported by the Shiites to be the next ruler, he is also one of the four caliphs (killed in the succession war)
  69. Allah-
    word for God or Jehovah in Arabic
  70. Appian Way -
    the main thorough fare into Rome. Had durable roads that are still there today (grooves where the wagons went because it was used so much- that same width became the width for trains); Nero crucified Christians here and then set them on fire to light the way.
  71. Antiochus IV-
    Syrian King. Antiochus ordered that all end worship to any gods other than Zeus and the other gods of the Greek pantheon (in order to unify andcompletely Hellenize his empire).
  72. Antipater-
    leader of the Idumaeans (a people that lived in the Levant and had interacted with the Jews). Son- Herod who later got the throne
  73. Apocrypha-
    The Old Testament included some of these books (Apocrypha) A group of books of the original old testament that was later rejected as questionable authenticity
  74. Arabs-
    an ethnic group of people who can belong to a variety of religions; the majority are Muslim
  75. Arch of Titus
    (pg. 189)- single arch (memorial) in Rome, depicts sacking of Jerusalem.
  76. Archimedes-
    Hellenistic scientist. Taught by pupil of Euclid. Significant contributions to: mechanics, hydraulics, warfare, mathematics, and astronomy. Found buoyancy principle. Devised scientific notation; considered his greatest work to be his geometric discoveries (which he wanted on his tomb);used “reducing the error to the limit” to calculate pi. demonstrated creativity in warfare with large crane with claw and by reflecting light off shields to ignite sails of Roman ships)
  77. Arian Christianity-
    Religion which believed that Christ was only a mortal man begotten of God and reduced his role to the lesser demigod. The Goths, Egyptian Christians, and barbaric Christians of Europe practiced this. Attacked by Justin, which united the east and the west.
  78. Attila-
    Leader of the Huns, a non-German tribe from central Asia. The Hunswere fierce warriors who struck terror into the Germans.
  79. Averroes
    (pg. 236)- a Greek Islamic scholar, specifically a teacher and philosopher who wrote amassive commentary on Aristotle.
  80. Avicena
    (pg. 236)- a Greek Islamic scholar who advanced medical knowledge. His medicalbooks were used as textbooks in Europe for over 500 years.
  81. Buoyancy principle-
    Scientific principle found by Archimedes. He used this principle todetermine if the king of Syracuse’s crown was made of pure gold or not bymeasuring the displacement of water of the crown and comparing it to thedensity of pure gold.
  82. Belisarius
    Was the general of Justinian’s who overtook Italy twice, he was alwaysfaithful to Justinian.
  83. Benedict-
    “In the sixth century St. Benedict conducted a religious revival andwrote new rules that established the basis of modern Roman Catholicmonasticism” (p. 206).
  84. Bubonic Plague
    Swept through Byzantium killing 40-70% of the population during the time of justinian
  85. Byzantine Empire
    It was essentially the eastern part of the roman empire, however it onlybecame Byzantium after the downfall of the western region in 427 AD.
  86. Byzantium
    The original city of Constantinople, was called Neo Roma or new Rome itcontrolled the trading routes from Europe to asia and was thriving within 6years of creation.
  87. Caligula-
    His real name was Gaius and he was named Tiberius’ successor. He wasleader for only 4 years due to his increasing insanity. He was killed bythe commander of the guard.
  88. Cato-
    Condemned conspirators who wanted to overthrow the Republic government; see p. 143.
  89. Censor-
    Magistrates who were responsible for guarding moral values of Rome; alsoconducted a census of the people (during which they could decide to raise aperson’s status from pleb to patrician).
  90. Centurion-
    Roman commander of 100 men, had to be an experienced fighter who had comeup through the ranks and had shown great personal bravery & dedication to Roman values
  91. Chalcedonians-
    Believed Christ had two separate natures, one human and one divine, andthey existed simultaneously, yet separately, in person of resurrected Jesus Christ.
  92. Charlemagne-
    (800 AD)recognized as new Roman emperor by Catholic Church. Bestowedtitle as “Holy Roman Emperor” by pope. United most of Europe under his control.His kingdom was divided by his grandsons.
  93. Cicero
    Roman philosopher, orator, and consul; mostly copied Greek philosophysimplifying it for the understanding of the masses. He stuck to thestrict sense of virtue of the Greeks and proposed that people inherentlyunderstood what virtue was. Disliked Julius Ceaser, loved the roman republic.“Participate but do the virtuous thing always”
  94. Clement of Alexandria
    Teacher of the school of Alexandria who had a pupil, Origen, togetherthey rejected the appointed bishop of Alexandria, Peter. Eventuallyexiled when Peter regained power.
  95. Cleopatra-
    Nominal co-ruler of Egypt with Ptolemy XIII, her brother and husband. After war between both Egyptian factions, Ptolemy was killed andCleopatra remained ruler under Roman authority. Rome supportedCleopatra’s faction as a love affair began the first night Julius Caesar andCleopatra met.
  96. Coliseum-
    Roman structure, built to accommodate 50,000 spectators; today it is inpartial ruin due to the Romans taking stones from it to construct otherbuildings.
  97. Consul-
    Senate appointed 2 consuls to serve 1-year terms. Each could veto actionsof the other. They had no responsibilities or powers affecting day-to-daypolicies of the city of Rome.
  98. Constantine-
    Built city of Byzantium(renamed Constantinople). Built Large libraries, new senate. Responsible forbringing Christianity to the Roman Empire. Had a vision before going intobattle, and put a Christian symbol on his soldiers shields. OversawNicene Council.
  99. Cordoba-
    Islamic city that had a library over 400,000 volumes. Scholars assembled here.
  100. Crassus
    Caesar made an allegiance with him. Leader of the Roman army, defeated slave revolt.
  101. Cyril
    a masculine Greek name.meaning “Lord, Masterful”
  102. Darius-
    Persian emperor who was outsmarted by Alexander the Great, when Alexandercharged him in battle and he fled. Alexander encountered Darius and usedthe same tactic. Darius fled again, resulting in the collapse of thePersian army. Darius was killed by his own troops.
  103. Democritus-
    made the atomic theory. Epicureans believed that things weren’t governed bya superficial power, thus god didn’t exist.
  104. Diaspora -
    Name given to the scattering of Jews by Romans. This deals with theJewish people being exported out of Israel. This happened several times byseveral different empires, First being the Babylonian empire and then later in70 A.D. by the Romans following the Jewish revolt.
  105. Diocletian-
    Ended Third Century leadership crisis. Believed empire needed to beadministered in two sections. Latin-speaking western part andGreek-speaker eastern part. Established augustii (each leader wasan “Augustus”) leadership positions that had full authority. He becameAugustus of east and name his aide, Maximian, augustus of west. Dicletianalso created “Caesars” who were secondary leaders for the augustii, creating theTetrachy. Essentially created a president and vice-president for both theeast and the west. Also ordered sacrifices to be made to Roman gods or beput to death.
  106. Dome of the Rock -
    Islamic mosque on the place where Mohammad ascended into heaven. This is onthe temple mount in Israel. This is a point of contention for the Jewish peoplesince they would like to have a temple in the same place.
  107. Edict of Milan
    A decree by Constantine that all religions should be respected
  108. Eusebius
    Bishop and historian of the church. Most famous for his history ofthe church written in the 4th century AD
  109. Euclid-
    Lived in Alexandria. Set out principles of geometry in a logicalsystem (see p. 117). Wrote textbook Elements of Geometry that wasthe standard textbook for study of geometry until around 1900.
  110. Galen
    Was a physician to the Romans who gained his knowledge from caring for thegladiators. Built upon concepts of Hippocrates which included usingobservations and notes to assist in diagnosis and that physicians have knowledgeof body and purpose of organs. Believed that illness was imbalance of thefour bodily fluids/humors. Put medical knowledge into 22 volumes thatserved as standard medical textbooks into modern era.
  111. Greek Fire-
    Type of petroleum product that could be sprayed on an opposing ship andignited resulting in great damage to enemy ships. Byzantium used it todefend seaward approaches to capital.
  112. Gregory I (the first)
    Was a pope in the 6th century whose accommodation of the pagan beliefsinfluenced many people to Christianity.
  113. Hadrian
    built a wall across the northern frontier of Britain. Also built extensivewooden fortifications along the Rhine and Danube Rivers. gave back part of theterritory in Mesopotamia that Trajan had conquered, thought it was undefendable
  114. Hagia Sophia
    the ‘Church of Holy Wisdom’ . largest church in Christianity at the time.Found in Constantinople.
  115. Hannibal-
    Famous Carthaginian general. Left Carthage and marched troops overPyranees and Alps into Italy to battle Romans. Romans eventually attackedCarthage, which was virtually left undefended with Hannibal in Italy. Hannibal returned to Carthage in time to meet Romans, but was defeated.
  116. Hellenism-
    Possibly meaning Hellenization which is the spread of Greek influences overforeign peoples (p. 109-141).
  117. Hellenistic period
    describes the era which followed the conquests of Alexander theGreat. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenithin Europe and Asia. It is often considered a period of transition
  118. Hero
    Inventedthe “steam engine” or steam powered inventions mostly used in temples
  119. Herod
    son ofAntipater. Governor of Jerusalem. An insecure ruler who killed thousands ofinnocent Jews.
  120. Horatio
    an example of a Roman hero, who differs from the Greek in putting the statein front of all personal matters. He was holding off an army of invadingEtruscans all by himself. The bridge was collapsing, but he survived.
  121. Horatii
    the three triplets from a Roman Family. Where challenged by a neighboringtribe to a duel, with three of their warriors, the Curiatii. One Horatiibrother lived, killing all three of the Curiatii. When he came back, his sisterwept because of the death of her lover. Her brother killed her for havingrelations with the enemy.
  122. Icons
    arepaintings and holy images of religious figures, considered a window to theheavenly world, so one could speak through the image to the world of divinityand thus draw closer to God.
  123. Iconoclasts
    Christians that destroyed to idols in the roman temples, literally meaningimage breakers (p. 226).
  124. Idumeans
    people that lived in Levant, and had interactions with the Jews, usually asenemies. Leader was Antipater.
  125. Imperial Church
    Church where the head is the emperor or other state leader this is the sameformat as the church of England
  126. Islam
    2nd largest in the world.Worship Allah. Prophet= Mohammed.Sacred book= Qur' ran."submission orpeace". followers are called Muslims.
  127. Istanbul-
    Constantinople’s new name after being captured by Ottoman Turks in 1453.
  128. Jerome
    Compiled the first set of writings of the apostles and ancient prophets hiswork was cannonized by the bishop of Rome.
  129. Jihad-
    Personal or collective struggle that will draw Muslims closer to Allah.
  130. Justinian
    Ruler of Byzantium who had a dream of returning Rome to the glory days andwaged war on the Germans and Palestinians to do it.
  131. Justinian Code
    Was the legal code developed by Justinian that is based off the roman legalsystem with more Christian influences.
  132. Khadijah
    wife of Mohamed who acceptedhis teaching quickly and was supportive of him
  133. Legion
    Roman army of the heavy infantry that was the basic militaryunit of the ancient Romanarmy in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
  134. Logos
    Greek philosophy a force that is in everything and is indescribable it wasused in the Greek translation of the new testament as “the word” in John 1:1
  135. Marcus Aurelius
    Philosopher emperor believed in the values of Cicero despite the fact thathis leadership was plagued with warfare
  136. Monophysites-
    Believed the resurrected Christ had only one nature. They believedthe divine person of Christ took over his human nature so the human nature nolonger existed.
  137. Nero-
    Son ofAgrippina, whose second husband was Claudius. Claudius died when Nero was16, mother and advisor ruled people until he was 24. Married daughter ofClaudius to solidify position as ruler. Took personal control of empireat age 24. He had his mother killed, forced his advisors to commitsuicide, and divorced his wife and had her killed. Nero blamed the firethat burned Rome on Christians. He committed suicide in 68 A.D., twoyears after killing Peter and Paul.
  138. Patricians
    The part of the Roman population that owned land (land holders). this groupelected the Pontifex Maximus (chief religious official of Rome)
  139. Romulus
    One of the twins of Rhea Silvia (she was raped by the God of Mars..)sentenced to be drowned by King because he was afraid the twins would take thethrown. the twins were washed ashore, raised by a she-wolf and established acity. Romulus killed his brother Remus and became first king of the city, namedit Rome in his own honor.
  140. Sadducees –
    Ruling Jewish priest class. Survival of Jewish people depended on their accommodation with the Greekswho ruled them.
  141. Saladin –
    Kurdish leader whosuccessfully united Islam in North Africa and the Holy land to defeat thecrusaders.
  142. Samaritans –
    Hated by both Christian andJew. Under Justinian’s decrees their synagogues were destroyed and theyhad to convert to Christianity in order to keep family lands.
  143. Sanhedrin –
    “The Jewish Court” Found Jesusguilty and took him before the Romans.
  144. Scientific notation –
    Asystem using powers of ten to represent large numbers. ex: 11 x 10^8
  145. Seleucid kingdom –
    Easternpart of the post Alexandrian kingdom. It was a major centre ofHellenistic culture.
  146. Seneca –
    A famous Stoic writer. Chief advisor to young Nero
  147. Shi’ites –
    The smaller of the two mainIslamic sects. They believed that the new Islamic leader must be chosen by theprevious leader.
  148. Skeptics –
    A Plato-derived philosophy. They reject the physical side of life and sought very little.
  149. Spartacus –
    He led a slave revolt againstRome. He was finally defeated by Crassus and his followers werecrucified.
  150. St. Anthony –
    Wrotedown rules for “hermit Christians” so that they could all be unified. These rules established the origins of Christian monastic orders.
  151. Virgil-
    Classical Roman poet bestknown for his three major works- Eclogues, Georgics, and the Aeneid. He wastall, Olive-skinned, of sturdy build and of rustic appearance.
  152. Vulgate -
    a late 4th century Latinversion of the Bible - Largely the results of the labors of St Jersome, who wascommissioned by Pope Damasus I (Called Vulgate because it was rendered in thecommon or vulgar tongue, Latin).

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