Psych Test Chapter 5

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Psych Test Chapter 5
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2010-11-01 18:01:42
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psych ch. 5 vocab
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  1. learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences or phobias.
    avoidance learning
  2. a method of changing behavior through a systematic program based on the learning principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning or observational learning, also called behavoir therapy.
    behavior modification
  3. a type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another.
    classical conditioning
  4. a learned involuntary response.
    conditioned reflexes
  5. the learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.
    conditioned response
  6. a neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it elicits a conditioned response.
    conditioned stimulus.
  7. reinforcement that is administered after every desired or correct response; the most effective method of conditioning a new response.
    continuous reinforcement.
  8. in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar. in social psychology, behavior (usually negative) directed toward others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group.
    discrimination.
  9. displaying a previously suppressed behavior because a model does so without receiving punishment.
    disinhibitory effect
  10. exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation.
    elicitation effect
  11. in classical conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. in operant conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of the withholding of reinforcement.
    extinction
  12. in classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus. in operant conditioning, the tendency to make the learned repsonse to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced.
    generalization
  13. conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals.
    higher-order conditioning.
  14. suppressing a behavior because a model is punished for displaying the behavior.
    inhibitory effect
  15. the sudden realization of the relationship between elements in a problem situation, which makes the solution apparent
    insight
  16. learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so
    latent learning
  17. one of thorndike's laws of learning, which states that the consequence, or effect, of a response will determine whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthened or weakened
    law of effect
  18. a passive resignation to aversion conditions that is learned through repeated exposure to in escapable or unavoidable aversive events
    learned helplessness
  19. a relatively permanent change in bahvior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is aquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation
    learning
  20. the individual who demonstrates a behavior or whose behavior is imitated
    model
  21. another name for the observational learning
    modeling
  22. learning a new behavior from a model through the acquistion of new responses
    modeling effect
  23. the termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, which increases the probability that the response will be repeated
    negative reinforcement
  24. learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior, learnign by imitation
    observational learning
  25. a type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response
    operant conditioning
  26. any pleasant or desirable consequneces that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated
    positive reinforcement
  27. a reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning
    primary reinforcer
  28. the removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a response.
    punishment
  29. an inborn, unlearned, automatic response (such as blinking, sucking, and grasping) to a particular environmental stimulus
    reflex
  30. anything that follows a response and strenghtens it or increases the probability that it will occur
    reinforcer
  31. any event that follows a response and stregthens or increases the probability that the respsonse will be repeated
    reinforcement
  32. a reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers
    secondary reinforcer
  33. an operant conditioning technique technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior (response) by reinforcing any movement in the dircetion of the desired response, thereby gradually guiding the response toward the ultimate goal.
    shaping
  34. a soundproof chamber with a device for delivering food to an animal subject, used in operant conditioning experiments.
    skinner box
  35. the reappearance of an extinguished response (in a weaker form) when an organism is exposed to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period.
    spontaneous recovery
  36. any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds, plural is stimuli
    stimulus
  37. a series of graudal steps, each of which is more similar to the final desired response
    successive approximations
  38. the intense dislike and/ or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort
    taste aversion
  39. a behavior modification technique that rewards appropriate behavior with tokens that can be exchanged later for desired items or privileges.
    token economy
  40. learning that occurs when a response is associated with a successful solution to a problem after a number of unsuccessful responses.
    trial & error learning
  41. a response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
    unconditioned response
  42. a stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning
    unconditioned stimulus

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