North Africa, Arabic for "the west", since it was the western part of the Islamic world.
The center of Islamic civilization was
West Asia, the Near East and the Middle East
the Ottoman Empire
- was large and wealthy
- had its capital at Constantinople, also known as Istabul
- it linked most of West Asia and North Africa politically between the early 1500s and the 1800s
The elite slave soldiers in the Ottoman Empire were known as
Janissaries, after the reforms of Mahmud in 1826, the Janissarys rebeled
Who defeated and then abolished the Janissary Corps
Mahmud II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire that cost the Ottomans lasn in southeast Europe (Greece, which gain their independece with help from Russia)
Mahmud II brought law and education under state control, thus undermining the influence of the
ulama, the learned religious leaders
Tanzimat refers to
reforms and modernization initiatives in the Ottoman Empire in the mid 19th century
The Tanzimat did all of the following
- set up secular schools
- design a more aquitable tax sctructure
- promise equal rights for all men, even non-Muslims
was an enthusiastic supporter of the Tanzimat reforms
Which leader shut down the Parliament and suspended the constitution in the Ottoman Empire
Abdulhamid, because he was unwilling to accept the limitations these institutions place on his authority
encouraged industrialization and Nationalism in the late Ottoman Empire
Who forced Abdulhamid to restore the constitution and parliament to the Ottoman Empire?
the Young Turks
Who was the real power behind the throne of Mehmet V?
the "Young Turks"
Who transformed Egypt's economy, built a powerful military and started a dynasty that lasted until the 1950's?
Muhammad Ali, a former soldier in the Ottoman army sent to resist Napoleons invasion of Egypt in 1798-1799
Egypt's slave soldiers who had served for centuries as Egypts rulling elite, massacred by Muhammad Ali
How did Muhammad Ali revolutionize Egyptian agriculture?
He encouraged peasants the growth of "cash crops" like cotton, to sell their crpos for cash to buy goods
which country had long dreamed of building a canal to shorten the East - West trade routes?
The Suez Canal did of the following
- cut travel time between Europe and Asia in half
- lowered shipping cost
- bolster global commerce
has its roots in the 19th century
The Barbary States were
Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria and Morocco, four North African Muslim countries
In 1827 Algerias ruler hit the French consul with a fly swatter because
the French owed Algeria money
After a long and devastating war, france conquered
Algeria in 1846
Olaudah Equiano was a
former slave who was kidnapped from West Africa at age 11 and shipped across the Atlantic to the West Indies manage to buy his freedom, wrote his memoirs and publish them in England in 1789, his book sold widely in Europe and America
The first country to outlaw the slave trade was
The ban on the slave trade had all of the following
- increasing the market value of slaves
- strengthening slavery within Africa
- relocating the slave trade from West to East Africa
The Fulani were a pastoral people from ----- Africa's grassland who adopted the religion of Sufism
West African people adopted the ideas of the Sufism
Usman dan Fodio
was a Fulani mystic who established the Sokoto Caliphate through a jihad of the sword
British abolitionists and liberated American slaves founded a settlement named Freetown in
In 1828, Zanzibar
was so wealthy that the sultan of Oman made it his headquarters
The Zulu kingdom
was the dominant power in the southeastern Africa in the early nineteenth century
The Boers were
descendants of the Dutch in South Africa
The Boers on the Great Trek compared themselves with
the Hebrews entering the Promise Land
Boer society was based
who established the Orage Free State and the Transvaal?
the Boers, later called Afrikaners settle in southernmost Africa after the Ducth East India Company founded a station there for Asia-bound ships
Between the mid 1400s and the mid 1800s, Europeans in Africa
mostly stayed close to the coast/ shorelines
Factors contributing to Eupopean imperialism in Africa icluded
- Europe's wealth and advanced technology
- racism and nationalism
- medical knowledge that helped Europeans survive in Africa
Before 1880, Europeans exerted colonial control over
less than 10 percent of the African continent
Innovations that facilitated European explotation of Africa in the 19th century included
the use of quinine (an alkaloid substance derived from cinchona trees) to prevent malaria and repeating rifles
"Doctor Livingston, I presume" was
reportedly journalist Henry Morton Stanley's greeting upon finding the "lost" explorer
Which European nation conquered the Congo, leading to a scramble for Africa?
Which European country gained control of Egypt?
The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885
laid the ground-rules for Europes empire-grabbing in Africa
The only African states to preserve their independence throughout the colonial period were
Liberia and Ethiopia
Ethiopian victory at Adowa in 1896
proved that Africans, armed with modern weapons and inspired by nationalism, could resist European miliraty might
All of the following statements about al-Mahdi are true
- he was charismatic, messianic Muslim mystic
- lacking modern weapons, his disciples were massacred at Omdurman
- his disciples were called Mahdists
became one of the world's richest men by controllin the southern African diamond business
African traditional systems
were generally transformed and sometimes deliberately supressed by European imperialism
African resistance to colonial rule increasingly relied on arguments based on
raw military might
the Triple Alliance consisted of
Italy, Germany, and Austria
The Reinsurance Treaty was an alliance between
Russia and Germany
What were the "twin pillars" of Otto von Bismarcks foreign policy?
isolation of france, and prevention of war in the Balkans
---- dismissed Otto von Bismarck im 1890
The Entente Cordiale of 1904 was a loose allaince between
Britain and France
Russia in teh early 1900s
lagged behind the Western powers in industrialization
Who was Russia's leader during the Bloody Sunday massacre
When did Bloody Sunday take place?
In the October Manifesto, the Russian tsar promised a constitution and
an elected parliament
Which of the following nations were part of the Triple Entente?
In 1908 a crisis arose over Austria's decision to annex Bosnia and
Russia defended Serbia in the Bosnian Crisis because
both were Slavic
The two Moroccan Crisis are both examples of
Germany pushing its enemies into alliances with eachother, in response to real or perceived German aggression
The "blank check" refers to
Germany's unconditional support for Austria, a document that would allow Austria to lead Germany and the rest of Europe into war
Factors contributing to the July Crisis of 1914 turning into a war included
- The system of interlocking alliances among European powers
- Kaiser William II's failure to correctly predict the behavior of Tsar Nicholas II
- Austria's impatience with Serbian nationalism
Britian entered WWI after Germany the rights of a neutral
Germany's two-front war strategy involved
a quick defeat of France before turning to Russia
The war reached a stalemate (deadlock) in
northeastern France near Marne
One of the defining characteristics of the Great War was
the extensive use of trenches in permanent defensive installations
The Central powers included
Bulgaria, Germany, Austria-hungary and Ottoman Turkey
The Allied Powers included
United States, Russia, France, Britain and its ally Japan
In 1915, Winston Churchill attempted to break the stalemate in the southeast with
an invansion of the Gallipoli peninsula
Who led defensive forces at Gallipoli?
Which nation switched sides because of territorial promises?
Which belligerent nation broughtsubmarines onto naval front in WWI?
What was the Lusitania?
a British passager liner
France's will to resist was symbolized in the city of
The largest one day loss in British military history occurred in the eight hours of the Battle of
The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 obligated Japan to come to ----- aid if its possessions were attacked by a third party
Germany's African colonies were valuable
chiefly as staging areas for attacks on British and French possessions and as communication centers
India expected autonomy from Britain because of
India's role in WWI
Which European nation's people suffered the least in WWI?
German measures to cope with wartime shortages included all of the following
- soap was rationed at one small bar per month
- bread was made from one part flour and two parts sawdust
- coal was used for heating and other purposes was rationed
Who was the U.S. president during WWI?
The Zimmermann Note
offered to return southwestern American territory to Mexico, if Mexico would ally with Germany in defeating the United States
The United States
entered WWI on the side of the Allies in 1917
Who was France's prime minister during WWI?
The following were a problem for Russia during WWI?
- not enough rifles
- low food supply
- lack of competent military leadership
The Siberian peasant who had great influence on the Russian tsarina was
On International Women's Day, March 8, 1917 in this city, female workers stared a mass demostration
Petrograd (Russias capital)
Russia's 1917 Revolution
toppled the tsar
------- took power when Tsar Nicholas II abdicated
The Provisional government
All of the following statements are true about V.I. Lenin
- His name was Vladimir Ilich Ulianov
- He was leader of the Bolsheviks
- He fled from Russia to Findland in the Summer of 1917
"Peace, Land and Bread", was the slogan adopted by
The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia
in November 1917 when they took control of the Congress of Soviets and Red Guards stormed the Provisional Goverment headquarters
Which country withdrew from WWI after an internal rebellion and civil war?
The Treaty of brest-Litovsk
gave Russian territories to Germany
the overall commander of Allied forces in 1918 was
Ferdinand Foch a French General
In 1918, the Germans
were particularly susceptible to the flu pandemic
Which etnic group was targeted for persecution in the Ottoman Empire?
Colonel ------ was known as Lawrence of Arabia
T.E. Lawrence, British officer who offer tactical advice to the Arabs in the war against the Ottoman Empire