Patho Stress

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Author:
gymnastlrl
ID:
46597
Filename:
Patho Stress
Updated:
2010-11-01 19:17:03
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Patho
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Patho Stress
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  1. Selye's concept of stress
    GAS = general adapation syndrom

    • alarm
    • adaptation / resistance
    • exhaustion
  2. HPA
    hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    stressors trigger HPA axis --> activates SNS
  3. what are the 2 main adrenal hormones?
    epi, norepi
  4. stress specificity
    • reactive response
    • anticipatory
    • conditional
  5. FX of epi
    • ^ HR and strength of contraction
    • ^ metabolism
  6. FX of norepi
    • ^ BP
    • pupil dilation
    • piloerection
    • sweaty palms and pits
  7. combined FX or catecholamines
    • ^ HR and strength of contraction
    • ^ BP
    • pupil dilation
    • piloerection
    • ^ glucagon release
    • decreased insulin release
    • ^ glycogenesis
    • ^ gluconeogenesis (glucose formation from non-carbs)
    • ^ lipolysis
    • ^ proteolysis
    • decreased glucose uptake by peripheral tissues
    • relaxation of bronchial smooth mm
    • vascular smooth mm contraction (accts for ^ BP)
  8. from where are catecholamines releases?
    chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
  9. which catecholamines is/are alpha adrenergic and beta adrenergic?
    • alpha: epi and norepi
    • beta: epi
  10. what is ACTH?
    what does it do?
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • activates cortisol / hydrocortisone
  11. FX of cortisol / hydrocortisone
    • ^ gluconeogenesis (glucose production from fats or proteins, not carbs)
    • ^ blood glucose
    • anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive
  12. FX of SNS activation
    • ^ HR, ^ SV --> ^ CO
    • periph vasoconstriction --> ^systolic BP, redistribution of blood to vital organs
    • ^ resp rate, shallow breathing
    • ^ epi, ^ norepi --> prolonged SNS response
    • glycogenesis (liver) --> ^ blood glucose
    • decreased GI secretions, decreased peristalsis --> decreased digestion
    • decreased peristalsis
  13. what is most important re: imagery
    involves all sense
  14. beta endorphins
    • proteins found in brain
    • pain relieving capabilities
    • released in response to stressor (incl exercise!)
    • ^ d/t hemorrhage --> inhibits BP decrease and delays compensatory response
  15. growth hormone
    aka?
    produced where?
    FX?
    how does stress affect it?
    • aka somatotropin
    • produced by anterior pituitary, lymphocytes, monocytes
    • ^ PRO, fat, carb metabolism, counters FX of insulin --> ^ BS
    • ^ immune fx
    • chronic stress decreases GH --> decreases immune fx
  16. prolactin
    FX?
    where from?
    how does stress affect it?
    • necessary for lactation and breast development
    • released from anterior pituitary
    • stress ^ prolactin levels
  17. oxytocin
    FX?
    where from?
    • "tend and befriend"
    • produced by hypothalamus and during orgasm
  18. testosterone
    where from?
    relationship to immune activity?
    impact of stress?
    • from Leydig cells in testes
    • immunosuppressive
    • stress decreases testosterone levels
  19. how does stress affect T and B cell fx?
    decreases Tc toxicity and B cell fx

    (also decreases natural killer cells)
  20. CRH
    where from?
    corticotropin releasing hormone

    from hypoth.
  21. primary cognitive appraisal options
    • irrelevant
    • benign / positive
    • stressful (harm / loss, threat)
  22. primary cognitive appraisal situation factors
    • novelty
    • predictability
    • immanency
    • duration
    • temporal
    • ambiguity
    • timing
  23. what is secondary cog. appraisal?
    • "what can i do?"
    • evaluation of coping resources and options
  24. define adaptation
    ability to respond to physical and psych stressors and to return to and maintain homeostasis
  25. define coping
    attempt to change situation for the better and to manage stress resultant emos

    set of behaviors (conscious and unconscious) a person adopts when facing stress
  26. Lazarus coping
    • info seeking
    • direct action (do something)
    • inhibition of action (do nothing)
    • seek social support
    • defense mechanisms aka intrapsychic mechanisms
  27. define coping resources
    examples?
    coping resources: complex set of personality, attitudinal, and cog. factors that provide psych context for coping

    ex: health, energy, positive beliefs, social skills and support, $

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