Bio Test 3

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Scully
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466
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Bio Test 3
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2009-10-23 22:27:56
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higgenbotham
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test 3 flash cards
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  1. Gymnosperm Reproductive Cycle Step # 1
    • Sporophyte is the tree
    • Develops male and female cones
    • Male is small, holds pollen, eventually disintigrates
    • Female is the typical pine cone, @ base is a cluster of cells forming eggs
  2. Gymnosperm Reproductive Cycle step #2
    Pollen is released, carried by wind, and lands on a green female cone.
  3. Gymnosperm Reproductive Cycle Step #3
    Pollen germinates and grows a pollen tube down the base of the cone
  4. Gymnosperm Reproductive Cycle Step #4
    Sperm are released, travel down the tube and fertilize the egg
  5. Gymnosperm Reproductive Cycle Step #5
    Ovule develops into seed
  6. Gymnosperm Reproductive Cycle Step # 6
    Cone matures and pops open, releasing the seeds
  7. Conifers
    • Gymnosperms
    • 600 Species
    • Pine, Fir, Cypress, Spruce
    • Evergreen - Photosynthesize all year, therefore grow all year
    • Long, think leaves with a thick cuticle
    • Have an antifreeze-like solution in their sap, causes pine tree smell
  8. Gymnosperms
    • Seed plants
    • Adapted to cold, dry habitats
    • Have naked seeds - no flowers
  9. Seed Plant Adaptations
    • Pollen
    • Seed
    • Gametophyte - greatly reduced in time and size
  10. Seed
    • Like a bird egg
    • Made of a mostly waterproof seed coat with embryo inside
  11. Male Gametophyte
    Pollen
  12. Female Gametophyte
    Cluster of cells - egg, ovule
  13. Seed Plants
    • All Tracheophytes
    • Most successful vascular plants
    • Not restricted to water
  14. Sori
    • Redorange dots under the leaves of ferns
    • Hold the spores
  15. Ferns
    • Seedless vascular plant
    • Only one that has real leaves
    • Has rhizomes, but mostly propogate by spores held in sori
    • Has a heart shaped gametophyte
  16. Epiphyte
    • Grows on something else, but not a parasite
    • Ex) Resurrection Ferns
  17. Horsetails (Equisetum sp)
    • Seedless vascular plants
    • Currently 3 feet, but fossil records are from 60-80 feet
    • Only 30 species
    • Hollow stems
    • Tiny scale-like leaves that contain silica
    • Have strobilus and rhizomes
    • Called scouring rushes, found on riverbanks and ponds
  18. Ovule
    Fertilized egg
  19. Fiddleheads
    Fern leaf that hasn't unrolled
  20. Fronds
    Large leaves of ferns
  21. Club Mosses
    • Seedless vascular plants
    • Not real mosses
    • Also called lycophytes and ground pine
    • Leaves are scale-like
    • Propogate by spores
    • Have a strobilus
    • Spores become Gametophyte after release
    • Have Rhizomes
  22. Strobilus
    Tiny cone-like structure that forms on top of plants and holds/releases spores
  23. Rhizome
    • Horizontal, underground stem of seedless vascular plants
    • New tree can grow from it
  24. Seedless Vascular Plants
    • Have roots, stems, and leaves
    • Have vascular tissue
    • Have lignin
    • Sporophyte is dominant, gametophyte is a seperate structure
    • Restricted to water
  25. Peat Moss
    • Most common bryophyte
    • Builds up huge masses over time
    • Form peat bogs - ecosystems in which cranberries live
    • Used as a poultice b/c it's absorbant and antiseptic
    • The ecosystem is acidic and harvested as a fuel source
  26. Tracheophyte
    • Has trachea/tubes
    • Vascular plants
  27. Bryophytes
    • Gametophyte is the dominant stage
    • Sporophyte is on the gametophyte
    • Restricted to moist environments because the sperm have to swim
    • Very absorbant, so very sensitive to air pollution
  28. Seed Plants
    • Vascular
    • Pollen, seeds, flowers, fruit
    • Increase reproduction/fertilization
  29. Vascular Plant Adaptations to Land
    • Vascular tissue transports water and other nutrients
    • Xylem
    • Phloem
    • Lignin
    • Both vascular tissue and lignin are responsible for height
    • Stomata
  30. Xylem
    Straw-like vascular tissue
  31. Phloem
    Vascular tissue that brings things down
  32. Lignin
    Sticky, rigid substance in plants for strength
  33. Stomata
    • Pores in plants that allow gas exchange
    • Have the ability to open and close
  34. Adaptations to Land
    • Roots
    • Shoot System
    • Cuticle
  35. Roots
    • Absorb water and other nutrients
    • Anchor the plant in soil
    • Give the plant stability
  36. Shoot System
    Above ground part of the plant designed to capture sunlight
  37. Cuticle
    Thin waxy layer that covers the shoot system and prevents water loss
  38. Advantages to Land
    • More sunlight, not diffused through water
    • More CO2 in the atmosphere
    • More nutrients in the soil
  39. Land Plant Evolution
    Started as green algae
  40. Kingdom Plantae
    • Photosynthetic Autotrophs
    • 2 Multi-celled stages: sporophyte, gametophyte
    • Develop from a protected embryo
    • Sessile
    • Alteration of Generations
    • All multicelled eukaryotes
  41. Bryophytes
    • Non-Vascular
    • Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts
    • Lack true roots, stems, and leaves, so no way to transport material
    • Rely on diffusion
    • Restricted in height (<3 inches)
  42. Dicots
    • Net Venation
    • Angiosperms
    • Maples, Oaks
    • Only outside of stem has vascular bundles
    • Inside of stem has a pith
    • Tap root system
    • Two cotyledons
    • Also eudicots
    • 130,000 species
    • Most dominant angiosperms
    • Flowering trees and shrubs
    • Parts are in multiples of 5
    • Ex) Aster sp - daisies, sunflowers
  43. Monocots
    • Fibrous root system
    • Has one cotyledon
    • Angiosperms
    • Long, slender leaves (grass, iris blade)
    • Flower parts are in multiples of 3
    • Parallel venation
    • Stem - vascular bundles
  44. Magnoliids
    • Angiosperms
    • Smallest group
    • Magnolias, avacados, peppers
  45. Angiosperm Defense Mechanisms
    • Thorns, chemicals, toxins
    • Peppermint, pepper, caffiene, nicotene
    • Ex) toothache tree - numbs the mouth
  46. Angiosperm Adaptation #1: Flowers
    • Increases fertilization, therefore reproduction
    • Holds reproductive structure
    • Attractant
    • Holds male and female gametophyte
  47. Angiosperm Adaptation #2: Fruit
    • Contains the seed
    • Ovaries that ripen and swell to surround the seed
    • For seed dispersal
    • Apples, berries, pecans, stickers, beggar ticks
  48. Angiosperm Adaptation #3: Broad Leaves
    • More sunlight captured = more photosynthesis = more sugar
    • Stores extra sugar
    • Deciduous
  49. Angiosperms
    • Seed plants
    • Evolved after gymnosperms
    • Most dominant, diverse, successful plants
    • Flowering
  50. Deciduous
    A tree that drops leaves under stress
  51. Gingkos
    • Female trees are not allowed in US
    • Helps memory
    • Different than other gymnosperms because it's deciduous
    • Only one species - gingko biloba
    • Distinctive leaf with two lobes
    • Cultivated in Asia, resistant to insects and air pollution
    • Diecious
  52. Gnetophytes
    • Gymnosperms
    • Found from the tropics to the desert
    • Ex) Joint Pine, Joint Fir, Mormon Tea - all contain efedra, used for stimulant and weight loss.
    • Pseudoephedrine - decongestant
  53. Monoecious
    • "One house"
    • Both sexes on one plant
  54. Dibecious
    • "Two houses"
    • Has a male and female plant
  55. Cyads
    • Gymnosperms
    • 130 Species
    • Sub-tropical plants
    • Also called ground palm and woody ferns
    • Ex) Sago Palms
  56. Sago Palm
    • Cyad
    • Popular in landscaping
    • Dibecious
    • Female strobili are leafy and fluffy
    • Male strobili are tight
  57. Primary Root
    • First root to grow and develop
    • Develops into a root system
    • In fibrous system, dies off
    • Taproot system primary root lives
  58. Receptacle
    Small cup that holds all the parts of the flower
  59. Stamen
    • Third Whorl
    • Male reproductive part
    • Made of anther
  60. Root Cap
    • At tip of the root
    • Dead cells that cover the apical meristem
  61. Calyx
    • First whorl
    • Made of sepals
    • Typically green and leaf-like
    • Non-reproductive
  62. Apical Meristem
    • Tip of the root
    • Primary growth
  63. Epidermis
    • Outside layer, skin
    • Root hairs on epidermis increase absorption of water
  64. Tepals
    When the calyx and corolla are fused/indistinguishable
  65. Corolla
    • Second whorl
    • Made of petals
    • Showy, colorful part
    • Non-reproductive
  66. Vascular Cylinder
    Down center of root
  67. Cortex
    Part of the root that converts sugar into starch
  68. Pedicle
    Small stem that holds a flower onto a bigger branch
  69. Filament
    Long stalk that holds the anther together
  70. Carpal/Pistil
    • Fourth whorl
    • Female reproductive organ, made of 3 parts:
    • 1. Stigma - cathces pollen
    • 2. Style - long tube that connects stigma to ovary
    • 3. Ovary - contains eggs/ovules
  71. Perfect Flower
    Has all 4 whorls
  72. Imperfect Flower
    • Missing one or more whorl
    • 1. Staminant - missing pistils
    • 2. Pistulant - missing stamen
  73. Oak Trees
    Monoecious, both sexes on one tree
  74. Persimmon Trees
    Diecious. 2 trees for 2 sexes.
  75. Polliation
    • Plants don't want to self-pollinate
    • Start - pollen is released for the anther
    • Travels to the stigma and is caught
    • Pollen germinates - grows a pollen tube down through the style into the ovary and reaches the eggs
    • Sperm are released to travel the tube and fertilize the eggs
    • Ovules develop into seeds
    • Ovary ripens to swell and surround the seeds
  76. Pollination Syndrome
    • How the pollen is spread
    • Flowers look different depending on what they're trying to attract
  77. Fruit
    • Seed-bearing organ of the plant
    • Purpose - seed dispersal
    • Typically the ovary ripens and swells
  78. Accessory Fruits
    • Parts other than the ovary that ripen and swell
    • Ex) recepticle, pedicle
  79. Simple Fruits
    • Have 1 pistil
    • Can be fleshy or dry
  80. Fleshy Fruits
    • Pome
    • Drupe
    • Berry
  81. Pome
    • Outer wall fleshy
    • Inner wall papery
    • Multi-seeded
    • Ex) Apples, Pears
  82. Drupe
    • 1 seed with succulent outer wall
    • Hard bony inner wall
    • Ex) Peaches, Cherries
  83. Berry
    • Multi-seeded pulpy mass
    • Ex) Tomato
    • 2 Types:
    • Pepo
    • Hesporidium
  84. Pepo
    • Hard rind
    • No partitions on inside
    • Ex) Pumpkin
  85. Hesporidium
    • Leathery rind
    • Aromatic oils
    • Have partitions inside
    • Ex) Grapefruits, Lemons, Oranges, Limes
  86. Dry Fruits
    • Dehiscent
    • Indehiscent
  87. Dehiscent
    • Splits at maturity
    • 3 Types:
    • Capsule
    • Legume
    • Follide
  88. Capsule Dehiscent Fruit
    • Multiple splits
    • Multiple seeds
    • Ex) Cottonwood, sweet gums, brazil nuts, poppies
  89. Legume - Dehiscent Fruit
    • 2 splits
    • Ex) beans, peas
  90. Follide - Dehiscent Fruit
    • 1 line of suture
    • 1 seed
    • Ex) Magnolia
  91. Indehiscent Fruit
    • Don't split open
    • 3 Types:
    • Achene
    • Samara
    • Nut
  92. Achene - Indehiscent Fruit
    • 1 seeded
    • Hard exterior
    • Attached at 1 point inside the shell
    • Ex) Sunflower seeds
  93. Samara - Indehiscent Fruit
    • Winged achene
    • Ex) Maple, elms
    • Look like pine seeds
  94. Nut - Indehiscent Fruit
    • 1 seeded
    • Hard, bony exterior
    • Ex) Acorns, Pecans
  95. Compound Fruit
    • More than one pistil
    • 2 Types:
    • Aggregates
    • Multiple
  96. Aggregates
    • Compound fruit with one flower and multiple pistils
    • Ex) Strawberry - aggregate of achenes
    • Magnolia - aggregate of follicles
    • Blackberries - aggregate of drupes
  97. Multiple
    • Compound fruit with more than one flower.
    • Ex) Pineapple
  98. Growth and Development of Organs
    • Patterns of growth dictated by hormones
    • 5 Kinds:
    • Gibberellins
    • Auxins
    • Cytokinins
    • Ethalene
    • Abscisic Acid
  99. Gibberellins
    • Hormones that promote flowering
    • Come out in spring
  100. Auxins
    • Promote primary growth (stem, root, shoot)
    • Root stimulators
    • For lengthnening
  101. Cytokinins
    • Hormones that promote cell division without promoting aging
    • Prevents fruit/leaves from falling off but promotes mitosis
    • Used for cut flowers
  102. Ethalene
    Promotes aging, ripening of fruit
  103. Abscisic Acid
    • Stops growth
    • Promotes dormancy
  104. Transpiration
    • The process of water moving through the plant
    • Pulled by water vapor
    • Most of the water a plant takes in is lost through transpiration
  105. Lateral Meristem
    secondary plant growth
  106. Dermal Tissue
    • Covers outside of plant
    • 3 Types:
    • Epidermis
    • Root Hairs
    • Periderm (Replaces epidermis as it ages)
  107. Parenchyma
    • Ground tissue
    • Soft and pliable
    • Capable of photosynthesis, mitosis
  108. Collenchyma
    • Flexible but thickened with cellulose
    • For support and strength
    • Ground tissue
  109. 4 Plant Organs
    • Flower
    • Fruit
    • Root
    • Stems/Leaves
  110. Blade
    Flat part of the leaf
  111. Pediole
    • Line that holds the leaf
    • Runs down the center
  112. Axillary Bud
    • Grows into leaf, stem, ect.
    • Everything that comes after it is ONE leaf.
  113. Simple Leaf
    Has only one blade
  114. Compound Leaf
    • More than one blade
    • Forms leaflet
    • Multiple leaflets = rachis
  115. Pinnately Leaves
    • Leaflets come out opposite of each other
    • Number off the rachis can be odd or even
    • Can be further divided: Bi-Pinnately or Tri-Pinnately compound
  116. Palmately Compound Leaves
    • Multiple leaflets originating from the same spot
    • 3 leaflets = tri-folate
  117. Node
    • Point of leaf attachment
    • Invisible line
  118. Alternate Leaf Arrangement
    One leaf at node
  119. Opposite Leaf Arrangement
    2 leaves at node
  120. Whorled Leaf Arrangement
    3 or more leaves at a node
  121. Parallel Venation
    All veins in a leaf run parallel to one another
  122. Net Venation
    • Leaf veins spread like a net
    • Can be pinnate(strong veins opposite one another), palmate (main veins all originate from the same spot), or arcuate (secondary veins arc)
  123. Leaf Shapes
    • Needle
    • Oblong
    • Ovate
    • Obovate
    • Circle
    • Chordate (Heart shape)
    • Deltoid (triangle)
  124. Apex
    • Tip of the leaf
    • Shape can be:
    • Acute
    • Acuminate
    • Rounded
    • Truncate
    • Bristle
    • Notched
  125. Leaf Base
    • Shape can be:
    • Acute
    • Truncate
    • Earlike
    • Asymmetrical
    • Rounded
  126. Leaf Margin
    • Shape can be:
    • Entire (smooth)
    • Undulate
    • Sinute
    • Crenate
    • Serrate
    • Dentate
    • Lobed
  127. Why?
    • Every plant has its own wildlife value
    • Aesthetics
    • Exotics don't belong (Chines Tallatree)
    • Important for ecosystem health
    • Important for economics (Timber)

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