theory test #2
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what is the antecubital space?
- the hollow or depressed area in front of the elbow bend.
- locates brachial pulse point
- 1 inch above = cuff placement
- correct arm position: fossa level with heart
what is hypertension?
what is the bp reading?
is it symptomatic or asymptomatic?
- abnormally high bp
- at or above 140/90
- asymptomatic "silent killer"
what causes an increase in bp? (4)
- emotional disturbance (stress)
- stimulants (caffeine)
what are the korotkoff sounds?
- series of sounds heard as the pressure in the sphygmomanometer cuff is released during measurement of the arterial blood pressure
- (systolic, auscultatory gap, diastolic)
what is the auscultation gap?
a period of abnormal silence that occurs between korotkoff phases heard during the measurement of bp.
what is the device called, used to measure bp?
definition of systolic:
- heart/ventricular contraction
- highest pressure
- clear tapping
definition of diastolic:
- ventricles relaxed and filled with blood
- lowest pressure
- sounds completely disappear
what is the normal respiration rate range?
what is the normal pulse range?
what is the tachycardia range?
Pulse > 100 BPM
what is the bradycardia range?
Pulse < 50 BPM
where is the site for taking a pulse?
less than 96 degrees F
greater than 99.5 degrees F
what four things cause increased body temp?
- hot drink
- external heat
what four things cause decreased body temp?
- physiological shock
what are flat lesions?
name 2 examples.
- lesions the same level as the skin or mucosa
- different color than surrounding tissue
what size is a macule?
what are three examples?
what colors can they be?
- less than 1 cm
- freckles, petechia, amalgam tattoo
- brown, black, red, or lighter than surrounding skin
what is a depressed lesion?
what size is a depressed lesion?
what are the most common?
- lesion below the normal level of the tissue.
- less than 3 cm
- most common are ulcers
what is an ulcer and two examples?
- a crater-like lesion of the tissue where the top two layers of the skin are lost.
- apthous ulcers, chickenpox
doing good for a benefit or enhanced wellness =
the act of self-determination by persons with ability to make a choice or decision. exists for both the patient and hygienist
avoidance of harm to others; a core value
duty to tell the truth when the information is disclosed to patients about treatment
what does ADPIE (dental hygiene process of care) stand for?
what are cultural considerations? (3)
what is primary prevention?
- measures carried out so the disease does not occur; truly prevented
- i.e. fluoride
what is secondary prevention?
- treatment of early disease to prevent further progress of potentially irreversible conditions, if not arrested, can lead to extensive rehabilitative treatment or loss of teeth.
- i.e. removal of all calc
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