Vocab. Units 4-6

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Vocab. Units 4-6
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  1. Aggrandize

    (e gran ' diz)


    (v.)
    to increase in greatness, power, or wealth; to build up or intensify; to make appear greater

    • syn.: augment, amplify, enhance, exalt
    • ant.: reduce, decrease, diminish
  2. Affable

    (af ' e bel)

    (adj.)
    courteous and pleasant, sociable, easy to speak to

    • syn.: genial, amicable, agreeable, cordial
    • ant.: surly, cantankerous, dour, inhospitable
  3. Amorphous

    (e mor ' fes)

    (adj.)
    shapeless, without definite form; of no particular type or character; without organization, unity or cohesion

    • syn.: formless, unstructured, nebulous, inchoate
    • ant.: definite, well-defined, clear-cut
  4. Aura

    (or ' e)

    (n.)
    that which surrounds (as an atmosphere); a distinctive or air or personal quality

    syn.: ambience, atmosphere
  5. Contraband

    (kan ' tre band)

    (n. / adj.)
    • (n.) illegal traffic, smuggled goods;
    • (adj.) illegal, prohibited

    • syn.: (adj.) illicit, bootleg, unlawful
    • ant.: (adj.) legal, lawful, licit
  6. Erudite

    (er ' yu dit)

    (adj.)
    scholarly, learned, bookish, pedantic

    • syn.: profoundly educated, well-read
    • ant.: ignorant, uneducated, illiterate
  7. Gossamer

    (gas ' e mer)

    (adj. / n.)
    • (adj.) thin, light, delicate, insubstantial
    • (n.) a very thin, light cloth

    • syn.: (adj.) filmy, diaphanous, sheer, airy, feathery, gauzy
    • ant.: (adj.) thick, dense, solid, massive
  8. Infer

    (in fer ')

    (v.)
    to find out by reasoning, to arrive at a conclusion on the basis of thought; to hint, suggest, imply

    syn.: gather, deduce, presume, guess, speculate
  9. Inscrutable

    (in skru ' te bel)

    (adj.)
    incapable of being understood; impossible to see through physically

    • syn.: impenetrable, incomprehensible, enigmatic
    • ant.: comprehensible, intelligible, penetrable
  10. Insular

    (in ' sye ler)

    (adj.)
    relating to, characteristic of, or situated on an island; narrow or isolated in outlook or experience

    • syn.: narrow-minded, parochial, provincial
    • ant.: catholic, cosmopolitan, liberal
  11. Irrevocable

    (i rev ' e ke bel)

    (adj.)
    incapable of being changed or called back

    • syn.: irreversible, unrecallable, unalterable
    • ant.: reversible, changeable
  12. Propensity

    (pre pen ' se te)

    (n.)
    a natural inclination or predilection toward

    • syn.: natural bent, proclivity, penchant
    • ant.: natural incapacity or inability
  13. Querulous

    (kwer ' e les)

    (adj.)
    peevish, complaining, fretful

    • syn.: petulant, touchy, cranky, irritable
    • ant.: uncomplaining, stoical, serene, placid
  14. Remonstrate

    (ri man ' strat)

    (v.)
    to argue or plead with someone against something, protest against, object to

    syn.: reason against, expostulate
  15. Repudiate

    (ri pyu ' de at)

    (v.)
    to disown, reject, or deny the validity of

    • syn.: disavow, abjure, renounce
    • ant.: avow, affirm, aver, avouch
  16. Resilient

    (ri zil ' yent)

    (adj.)
    able to return to an original shape or form; able to recover quickly

    • syn.: springy, elastic, buoyant, bouncy
    • ant.: rigid, stiff, inflexible, unyielding
  17. Reverberate

    (ri ver ' be rat)

    (v.)
    to re-echo, resound; to reflect or be reflected repeatedly

    syn.: rumble, thunder, boom, echo
  18. Scurrilous

    (sker ' e les)

    (adj.)
    coarsely abusive, vulgar or low (especially in language), foul-mouthed

    • syn.: obscene, filthy, abusive, vituperative
    • ant.: decorous, seemly, tasteful, dignified
  19. Sedulous

    (sej ' e les)

    (adj.)
    persistent, showing industry and determination

    • syn.: assiduous, tireless, indefatigable
    • ant.: lackadaisical, listless indolent, otiose
  20. Sleazy

    (sle ' ze)

    (adj.)
    thin or flimsy in texture; cheap; shoddy or inferior in quality or character; ethically low, mean, or disreputable

    • syn.: inferior, cheesy, tawdry, tatty
    • ant.: superior, first-rate, quality, sturdy
  21. Amnesty

    (am ' ne ste)

    (n.)
    a general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution
  22. Autonomy

    (o tan ' e me)

    (n.)
    self-government, political control

    • syn.: home rule
    • ant.: dependence, subjection, colonial status
  23. Axiomatic

    (ak se e mat ' ik)

    (adj.)
    self-evident, expressing a universally accepted principle or rule

    • syn.: taken for granted
    • ant.: questionable, dubious, controversial
  24. Blazon

    (blaz ' en)

    (v.)
    to adorn or embellish; to display conspicuously; to publish or proclaim widely

    • syn.: broadcast, trumpet
    • ant.: hide, conceal, cover up, bury
  25. Caveat

    (kav ' e at)

    (n.)
    a warning or caution to prevent misunderstanding or discourage behavior

    syn.: admonition, word to the wise
  26. Equitable

    (ek ' we te bel)

    (adj.)
    fair, just, embodying principles of justice

    • syn.: right, reasonable, evenhanded
    • ant.: unjust, unfair, one-sided, disproportionate
  27. Extricate

    (ek ' stre kat)

    (v.)
    to free from entanglements or difficulties; to remove with effort

    • syn.: disentangle, extract, disengage
    • ant.: enmesh, entangle, involve
  28. Filch

    (filch)

    (v.)
    to steal, especially in a sneaky way and in petty amounts

    syn.: pilfer, purloin, swipe
  29. Flout

    (flaut)

    (v.)
    to mock, treat with contempt

    • syn.: scoff at, sneer at, snicker at, scorn
    • ant.: obey, honor, revere, uphold
  30. Fractious

    (frak ' shes)

    (adj.)
    tending to be troublesome; unruly, quarrelsome, contrary; unpredictable

    • syn.: refractory, recalcitrant, peevish
    • ant.: docile, tractable, cooperative
  31. Precept

    (pre ' sept)

    (n.)
    a rule of conduct or action

    syn.: principle, maxim
  32. Salutary

    (sal ' ye ter e)

    (adj.)
    beneficial, helpful; healthful, wholesome

    • syn.: salubrious, curative
    • ant.: detrimental, deleterious, pernicious
  33. Scathing

    (ska ' thing)

    (adj.)
    bitterly severe, withering; causing great harm

    • syn.: searing, harsh, ferocious, savage
    • ant.: bland, mild
  34. Scourge

    (skerj)

    (v. / n.)
    • (v.) to whip, punish severely
    • (n.) a cause of affliction or suffering; a source of severe punishment or criticism

    • syn.: (v.) flog, beat; (n.) bane, plague, pestilence
    • ant.: (n.) godsend, boon, blessing
  35. Soporific

    (sap e rif ' ik)

    (adj. / n.)
    • (adj.) tending to cause sleep, relating to sleepiness or lethargy
    • (n.) something that induces sleep

    • syn.: (n.) narcotic, anesthetic
    • ant.: (adj.) stimulating; (n.) stimulant, stimulus
  36. Straitlaced

    (strat ' last)

    (adj.)
    extremely strict in regard to moral standards and conduct; prudish, puritanical

    • syn.: highly conventional, overly strict, stuffy
    • ant.: lax, loose, indulgent, permissive, dissolute
  37. Transient

    (tran ' shent)

    (adj. / n.)
    • (adj.) lasting only a short time, fleeting
    • (n.) one who stays only a short time

    • syn.: (adj.) impermanent, ephemeral, evanescent
    • ant.: (adj.) permanent, imperishable, immortal
  38. Unwieldy

    (en wel ' de)

    (adj.)
    not easily carried, handled, or managed because of size or complexity

    • syn.: cumbersome, bulky, clumsy, impractical
    • ant.: manageable, easy to handle
  39. Vapid

    (vap ' id)

    (adj.)
    dull, uninteresting, tiresome; lacking in sharpness, flavor, liveliness, or force

    • syn.: insipid, lifeless, colorless
    • ant.: zesty, spicy, savory, colorful, lively
  40. Anomalous

    (e nam ' e les)

    (adj.)
    abnormal, irregular, departing from the usual

    • syn.: exceptional, atypical, unusual, aberrant
    • ant.: normal, regular, customary, typical, ordinary
  41. Aspersion

    (e sper ' zhen)

    (n.)
    a damaging or derogatory statement; the act of slandering or defaming

    • syn.: innuendo, calumny, denigration
    • ant.: normal, typical, ordinary, expected
  42. Bizarre

    (bi zar ')

    (adj.)
    extremely strange, unusual, atypical

    • syn.: grotesque, fantastic, outlandish
    • ant.: normal, typical, ordinary, expected
  43. Brusque

    (bresk)

    (adj.)
    abrupt, blunt, with no formalities

    • syn.: curt, tactless, ungracious, gruff, rough
    • ant.: gracious, tactful, courteous, diplomatic
  44. Cajole

    (ke jol ')

    (v.)
    to coax, persuade through flattery or artifice; to deceive with soothing thoughts or false promises

    • syn.: wheedle, inveigle, soft-soap, sweet-talk
    • ant.: coerce, force, strong-arm
  45. Castigate

    (kas ' te gat)

    (v.)
    to punish severely; to criticize severely

    • syn.: chastise, rebuke, censure, upbraid
    • ant.: reward, honor, praise, laud
  46. Contrive

    (ken triv ')

    (v.)
    to plan with ingenuity, invent; to bring about as the result of a scheme or plan

    syn.: think up, devise, concoct, fabricate
  47. Demagogue

    (dem ' e gag)

    (n.)
    a leader who exploits popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power

    syn.: rabble-rouser, firebrand
  48. Disabuse

    (dis e byuz ')

    (v.)
    to free from deception or error, set right in ideas or thinking

    • syn.: undeceive, enlighten, set straight
    • ant.: deceive, delude, pull wool over one's eyes
  49. Ennui

    (an we ')

    (n.)
    weariness and dissatisfaction from lack of occupation or interest, boredom

    • syn.: languor, world-weariness, listlessness
    • ant.: enthusiasm, liveliness, excitement, intensity
  50. Fetter

    (fet ' er)

    (n. / v.)
    • (n.) a chain or shackle placed on the feet (often used in plural); anything that confines or restrains
    • (v.) to chain or shackle; to render helpless or impotent

    • syn.: (n.) bond, restraint; (v.) bind, hamper
    • ant.: (v.) free, liberate, emancipate
  51. Heinous

    (ha ' nes)

    (adj.)
    very wicked, offensive, hateful

    • syn.: evil, odious, abominable, outrageous
    • ant.: excellent, wonderful, splendid
  52. Immutable

    (i myu ' te bel)

    (adj.)
    not subject to change, constant

    • syn.: unchangeable, unalterable, fixed, invariable
    • ant.: changeable, inconstant, variable, fickle
  53. Insurgent

    (in ser ' jent)

    (n. / adj.)
    • (n.) one who rebels or rises against authority
    • (adj.) rising in revolt, refusing to accept authority; surging or rushing in or on

    • syn.: (adj.) revolutionary, rebellious, mutinous
    • ant.: (adj.) loyalist, loyal, faithful
  54. Megalomania

    (meg e lo ma ' ne e)

    (n.)
    a delusion marked by a feeling of power, wealth, talent, etc., far in excess of reality

    • syn.: delusions of grandeur
    • ant.: humility, modesty, self-abasement
  55. Sinecure

    (si ' ne kyur)

    (n.)
    a position requiring little or no work; an easy job

    syn.: "no-show" job, cushy job, "plum"
  56. Surreptitious

    (ser ep tish ' es)

    (adj.)
    stealthy, secret, intended to escape observation; made or accomplished by fraud

    • syn.: furtive, covert, clandestine, concealed
    • ant.: open, frank, aboveboard, overt
  57. Transgress

    (tranz gres ')

    (v.)
    to go beyond a limit or boundary; to sin, violate a law

    • syn.: overstep, exceed, trespass, err
    • ant.: obey, toe the line
  58. Transmute

    (tranz myut ')

    (v.)
    to change from one nature, substance, or form to another

    • syn.: transform, convert, translate, metamorphose
    • ant.: maintain unchanged, preserve
  59. Vicarious

    (vi kar ' e es)

    (adj.)
    performed, suffered, or otherwise experienced by one person in place of another

    • syn.: surrogate, substitute, imagined, secondhand
    • ant.: real, actual, firsthand

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