ap lecture 4 ch 9

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ap lecture 4 ch 9
2010-11-01 21:00:20
ap lecture

ap lecture 4
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  1. surrounds entire muscle
  2. surrounds each muscle fiber
  3. surrounds each muscle bundle (fascicle)
  4. binds muscles into functional groups
    deep fascia
  5. plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fiber
  6. cytoplasm of skeletal muscle fiber
  7. Series of membranous channels (modified ER) that surround each myofibril
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  8. Rod-like contractile elements within a muscle fiber
  9. Functional unit of a skeletal muscle fiber
  10. Area of the sarcomere with overlapping thick and thin filaments
    a band
  11. Area of the sarcomere containing only thin filaments
    i band
  12. Area in the center of the A band containing only thick filaments
    h band
  13. cross bridges
    myosin molecules
  14. Contains vesicles filled with acetylcholine
    synaptic knob
  15. Space between the neuron and the muscle
    synaptic cleft
  16. Contains receptors for acetylcholine
    motor end plate
  17. Type of contraction represented by a single stimulus/contraction/relaxation sequence
  18. A muscle producing peak tensions with visible relaxation during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation
    incomplete tetanus
  19. A muscle that is stimulated so frequently that the relaxation phase is completely eliminated
    complete tetanus
  20. When a muscle is stimulated repeatedly for several seconds with a constant stimulus, the amount of tensions gradually increases to a maximum.
    wave summation
  21. skeletal, striated, voluntary
    skeletal muscle tissue
  22. heart, striated, involuntary
    cardiac muscle tissue
  23. visceral, nonstriated, voluntary
    smooth muscle tissue
  24. Ability to receive and respond to a stimulus
  25. Ability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated
  26. Ability to be stretched or extended
  27. Ability of a muscle to resume its resting length after being stretched
  28. Contraction of muscle during which the muscle changes in length and the tension remains constant through most of the contractile period
    isotonic contraction
  29. Contraction of muscle during which the tension continues to increase but the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens
    isometric contraction
  30. Contraction of the muscle in which the muscle shortens and does work
    concentric contraction
  31. Contraction of muscle in which the muscle contracts as it lengthens
    eccentric contraction
  32. Neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction
  33. stored in muscles and tapped to regenerate ATP while metabolic pathways are adjusting to the higher demands for ATP
    creatine phosphate
  34. red pigment that stores oxygen
  35. Product of anaerobic glycolysis
    lactic acid
  36. Type of muscle fibers that contract quickly and rely on aerobic respiration for ATP
    fast oxidative fibers
  37. Type of muscle fibers that are most resistant to fatigue
    slow oxidative fibers
  38. Type of fibers that have few mitochondria
    fast glycolitic fibers
  39. Sustained spasm, or tetanic contraction
  40. Inflammation of a muscle, its connective tissue coverings and tendons, and capsules of nearby joints
  41. Muscle pain resulting from any muscle disorder
  42. Excessive stretching and possible tearing of a muscle caused by muscle overuse or abuse
  43. period of time between stimulation and the onset of muscle contraction
    latent period
  44. The time during which the muscle is shortening
    contraction period
  45. The time during which the muscle is returning to its original length
    relaxation period
  46. The very brief time after one stimulus during which the muscle is unresponsive to a second stimulus
    refractory period
  47. Propagation of an electrical current along the sarcolemma
    action potential
  48. The initial polarized state
    resting potential
  49. Restoration of membrane potential to resting potential
  50. The time when fiber cannot be stimulated until repolarization is complete
    refractory period
  51. Electrical event occurring only at neuromuscular junction
    end plate potential
  52. Neurotransmitter released into the neuromuscular junction
  53. Enzyme released into neuromuscular junction to break down acetylcholine
  54. Released by terminal cisternae into the sarcoplasm to bind with troponin
  55. Cytoplasmic, calcium-binding protein
  56. Changes shape during the contraction cycle
  57. Slides toward the M line during a contraction
  58. Covers the binding site
  59. Binds Ca2+ and starts the contraction cycle
  60. An entire skeletal muscle is surrounded by
  61. As an axon enters a muscle, it branches into a number of axonal terminals, each of which forms a neuromuscular junction with a single muscle fiber. A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it supplies is called a:
    motor unit
  62. What is the ion released from the terminal cisternae that combines with troponin and removes the blocking action of tropomyosin, resulting in the formation of cross bridges?
  63. Each skeletal muscle fiber is controlled by a neuron at a single:
    neuromuscular junction
  64. best describes the composition of the structure known as a triad in a skeletal muscle fiber
    Terminal cisterna, transverse tubule, and terminal cistern
  65. In the sliding filament model of muscle contraction, the myofilaments slide over each other, resulting in the overlapping of actin and _________.
  66. The dense layer of collagen fibers that surround an entire skeletal muscle is the
  67. The functional unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the:
  68. The space between the neuron and the muscle is the
    synaptic cleft
  69. The term that means a continued mild or partial contraction of an entire muscle is muscle:
  70. The type of muscle contraction in which the muscle fibers produce increased tension, but the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens, is called:
  71. increases in quantity during repetitive muscle contraction
    lactic acid
  72. The sequence of electrical changes that occurs along the sarcolemma when a muscle fiber is stimulated is known as the:
    action potential
  73. allows recoil of the muscle fiber when contraction ends
    elastic filaments
  74. Which one of the following binds calcium ions in a smooth muscle, causing contraction?
  75. A sarcomere is part of a
  76. Cross bridges that link between the thick and thin filaments are formed by the:
    globular head of thick filaments
  77. Which of the following is thought to be an autoimmune disease of acetylcholine receptors?
    Myasthenia gravis
  78. The refractory period in which the muscle will not contract if stimulated occurs during __________ of the muscle cell.
  79. What is the cause of rigor mortis?
    calcium influc into the cell after death
  80. Where does 95% of the energy needed for contraction come from during moderate exercise?
  81. The alternating contraction and relaxation of opposing layers of smooth muscle is referred to as:
  82. characteristic that is unique to smooth muscle?
    absence of striations
  83. Which of the following muscle types is both voluntary and striated?
  84. Muscle cells initiate nerve impulses.
  85. Which of the following is a special adaptation present in muscle cells, but absent in most other cells?
    presence of myoglobin
  86. The final "go" signal for skeletal muscle contraction is
    increase in intracellular calcium ion levels
  87. The ___________ serve as a communication network that coordinates the contraction of each myofibril that makes up the muscle fiber
  88. Thin myofilaments are composed chiefly of:
  89. Acetylcholinesterase breaks down
  90. Myofibrils are composed of repeating contractile elements called:
  91. When an action potential arrives at the neuromuscular junction, the most immediate result is:
    the release of acetylcholine
  92. If a muscle is applied to a load that exceeds the muscle's maximum tension
    the muscle length will not change during contraction (isometric contraction)
  93. The variation of stimulation needed in skeletal muscle contraction in order to have controlled movement is called a:
    graded muscle response
  94. The most efficient means of producing ATP is:
    aerobic respiration
  95. What would occur if a muscle became totally depleted of ATP?
    The muscle would remain in a contracted state due to an inability to break actin-myosin cross bridges.
  96. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is more common in females than in males.