ap lecture 4 ch 10

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katydurkin
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46647
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ap lecture 4 ch 10
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2010-11-01 22:11:19
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ap lecture 4
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  1. The muscles that perform most of the action in producing the movement
    agonists
  2. Muscles that help the prime mover by contracting at the same time to assist in the movement so that the movement is more effective
    synergists
  3. Muscles that relax when the prime mover and synergists are contracting
    antagonists
  4. Raises eyebrows
    epicranius
  5. draws eyebrows together, wrinkles skin of forehead (frowning)
    corrugator supercilii
  6. closes eye
    orbicularis oculi
  7. raises lateral corners of mouth upward
    zygomaticus major and minor
  8. opens lips
    levator labii superioris
  9. draws corner of lip laterally, tenses lips
    risorius
  10. draws lower lip inferiorly (pout)
    depressor labii inferioris
  11. draws corners of mouth downward and laterally (tragedy mask grimace)
    depressor anguli oris
  12. closes lips, kissing and whistling
    orbicularis oris
  13. wrinkles chin, protrudes lower lip
    mentalis
  14. compresses cheek
    buccinator
  15. tenses skin of neck, depresses mandible
    platysma
  16. prime mover of jaw closure
    masseter
  17. closes jaw
    temporalis
  18. protracts tongue
    genioglossus
  19. depresses tongue
    hyoglossus
  20. retracts and elevates tongue
    styloglossus
  21. flexes and laterally rotates the head
    sternocleidomastoid
  22. elevate first two ribs
    scalenes
  23. extend or hyperextend head
    splenius
  24. extend and laterally flex the vertebral column, maintain posture
    iliocostalis
  25. extends vertebral column
    spinalis
  26. extend vertebral column and head and rotates them to opposite side
    semispinalis
  27. pull ribs toward one another to activate rib cage
    external intercostals
  28. draw ribs together and depress rib cage
    internal intercostals
  29. prime mover of inspiration, flattens on contraction
    diaphragm
  30. flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column
    rectus abdominus
  31. flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall, trunk rotation and lateral flexion
    external oblique
  32. compresses abdominal contents
    transverse abdominus
  33. with ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and downward
    pectoralis minor
  34. rotates scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward
    serratus anterior
  35. helps stabilize and depress pectoral girdle
    subclavius
  36. stabilizes, raises, retracts, and rotates scapula
    trapezius
  37. elevates/adducts scapula
    levator scapulae
  38. stabilize scapula
    rhomboids
  39. prime mover of arm flexion, rotates arm medially, adducts arm
    pectoralis major
  40. prime mover of arm abduction when all its fibers contract simultaneously
    deltoid
  41. prime mover of arm extension, powerful arm adductor, medially rotates arm at shoulder
    latissimus dorsi
  42. chief medial rotator of humerus
    subscapularis
  43. initiates abduction of humerus
    supraspinatus
  44. rotates humerus laterally
    infraspinatus
  45. rotates humerus laterally also
    teres minor
  46. extends humerus, medially rotates, and adducts humerus
    teres major
  47. flexion and adduction of the humerus
    coracobrachialis
  48. powerful forearm extensor
    triceps brachii
  49. controls ulnar abduction during forearm pronation
    anconeus
  50. flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm
    biceps brachii
  51. a major forearm flexor, lifts ulna as biceps lift the radius
    brachialis
  52. powerful flexor of wrist, abducts hand
    flexor carpi radialis
  53. tenses skin and fascia of palm during hand movements
    palmaris longus
  54. prime mover of finger extension
    extensor digitorum
  55. extends index finger
    extensor indicis
  56. adducts, flexes and medially rotates thigh
    pectineus
  57. adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg
    gracilis
  58. extends knee and flexes thigh at hip, one of quadriceps
    rectus femoris
  59. extends and stabilizes knee, one of quadriceps
    vastus lateralis
  60. extends knee, one of quadriceps
    vastus medialis
  61. major extensor of thigh
    gluteus maximus
  62. rotates thigh laterally and stabilizes hip joint
    quadratus femoris
  63. extends thigh and flexes knee laterally rotates leg, one of hamstrings
    biceps femoris
  64. extends thigh and flexes knee, medially rotates leg, one of hamstrings
    semitendinosus
  65. deep to semitendinosus, extends thigh and flexes knee
    semimembranosus
  66. prime mover of dorsiflexion, inverts foot
    tibialis anterior
  67. prime mover of toe extension
    extensor digitorum longus
  68. plantar flexes foot when knee is extended bc it also crosses knee joint, calf
    gastrocnemius
  69. Close body openings by contracting
    circular
  70. Has a broad origin; single tendon of insertion
    convergent
  71. Strap-like with an expanded belly; great ability to shorten but NOT very powerful
    parallel
  72. Fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle; do NOT shorten as much but are more powerful.
    pennate
  73. A rigid bar that moves on a fixed point
    lever
  74. The fixed point upon which a lever moves
    fulcrum
  75. The applied force
    effort
  76. the resistance
    load
  77. lever
    radius
  78. fulcrum
    elbow joint
  79. effort
    biceps brachii
  80. load
    hand and what you are holding
  81. Effort is applied at one end of the lever; the load at the other; fulcrum somewhere in between
    first class lever
  82. Effort applied at one end of the lever; the fulcrum located at the other; load between them
    second class lever
  83. Effort applied between the load and the fulcrum
    third class lever
  84. first class lever
    lifting your head off your chest
  85. second class lever
    standing on tip toe
  86. third class lever
    flexing the corearm with the biceps brachii
  87. The most common lever systems in the body are those that have the applied force between the fulcrum and the resistance. These are called ______ levers.
    third class
  88. A muscle that assists the muscle primarily responsible for a given action is a
    synergist
  89. A muscle that is inserted on the mandible is probably involved in:
    chewing
  90. A muscle whose name ends in the suffix -glossus would be found attached to the:
    tongue
  91. Damage to which of the following muscles would interfere with quiet breathing?
    external intercostals
  92. During abdominal surgery, the surgeon makes a cut through the muscle directly to the right of the linea alba. The muscle that is being cut is the
    rectus abdominus
  93. Muscles with fibers that run straight or parallel to the long axis of the body are called:
    rectus
  94. The muscular wall of the abdomen is composed of:
    oblique and rectus muscles
  95. The major abductor muscle of the upper arm is the
    deltoid
  96. The attachment site of the muscle tendon to the more-movable bone is called the:
    insertion
  97. The deltoid is a muscle named according to
    shape
  98. The extensor digitorum muscle is an example of a ____________ muscle.
    pennate
  99. The _______ nerve innervates all of the extrinsic tongue muscles
    hypoglossal
  100. Which of the following muscles divides the neck into two triangles?
    sternocleidomastoid
  101. Which of the following muscles lifts the rib cage during inspiration?
    external intercostals
  102. The linea alba is found in the
    rectus abdominus
  103. The _______________ assists the triceps brachii in forearm extension
    anconeus
  104. Which of the following adducts the fingers and wrist?
    flexor carpi ulnaris
  105. The prime mover for flexion of the thigh is the __________ muscle.
    iliopsoas
  106. The ________________ is the prime mover of dorisiflexion of the foot.
    tibialis anterior
  107. Shin splints are caused by
    irritation of the tibialis anterior
  108. __________ are muscles that oppose or reverse a particular movement.
    antagonists
  109. How many origins are there for the biceps brachii muscle?
    2
  110. Sphincters have a _______ arrangement of fascicles.
    circular
  111. The prime movers of back extension are the:
    erector spinae
  112. Voluntary control of urination is facilitated by the:
    external urethral sphincter
  113. straight
    rectus
  114. right angles
    transverse
  115. short
    brevis
  116. triangle
    deltoid
  117. rib
    costal
  118. wrist
    carpi
  119. Plantar flexion is the most powerful movement of the foot and ankle
    true

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