Microbiology Module 11.1

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Marcusje3
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46662
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Microbiology Module 11.1
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2010-11-01 22:56:39
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Microbiology Test
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Module 11
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  1. Non-Prokaryotic microbes and viruses
    • Eukaryotes typically 1-celled organisms
    • Viruses important in microbe evolution due to horizontal gene transfer
    • Viruses not considered to be alive
  2. Eukaryotic Cell Movement
    • Movement w/in eukaryotes is both intra- and cellular
    • movement dependent on microtubules in cilia and flagella
    • cilia and flagella contain (9+2) arrangement of tubules
    • Subcellular mvmt dependent on microtubules & Microfilament
  3. Eukaryotic Import Mechanism
    • Endocytosis and Phagocytosis
    • Endo: Used to recycle the CM
    • Phago: Process for something really large
    • Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes
    • Hard to occur in rigid cell walls
  4. Eukaryotic Microbes: Protist
    • Non-fungi eukaryotic microbes
    • consists of single celled organisms
    • Current schemes based on DNA and biochemical analysis
    • Divided into supergroups
  5. Super Group Archaeplastida
    • Plastids: organelles dervided from photosythetic endosymbiotic bacteria
    • Double membrane
    • cyanobacteria gram (-)
    • Cell walls contain cellulose
    • Examples: Red and green algae
  6. Super Group Amebozoa
    • Ameboid movement: uses lobopodia to move
    • Some have cilia or flagella
    • Dictyostelium Discoideum: widely studied as model for differentiation and cell signaling
    • Pathogenic genera: Entamoeba (dysenthery) and Acanthamoeba (brain damage)
  7. Super Group Chromalveolata
    • Have secondary plastids (engulfed algae instead of bacteria)
    • Have more than 2 membranes
    • Location w/in ER
    • Includes coccoliths and diatoms
    • Alveolata: Dinoflagellates (red tide), Apicomplexa (malaria), Ciliophora
  8. Alveolates (Subgroup of supergroup chromalveolata)
    • Dinoflagellata (red tide): Contain potent neurotoxins. 2 flagella
    • Ciliophora (Paramecium): Contain 2 different nuclei, contain micronucleus which contain 1000's of frequently transcribed genes
    • Apicomplexan: All parasites. Apical complex allows microbe to penetrate into hosts. Disease include malaria and toxoplasmosis
  9. Diatoms and Coccoliths (members of supergroup chromalveolata
    • Photosynthetic with external mineral shells
    • Diatoms: Petri-dish like structure made out of silica. Fix as much CO2 as all rain forests combined
    • Coccoliths: Made up of CaCO3. Found in high levels in plankton. regulate CO2 cycle. Major constituent of limestone
  10. Super Group Excavata
    • Mostly pathogens
    • Contain flagella that directs food into cytostome
    • Leishmania: Flesh-eating disease (mostly in middle east)
    • Giardia (Camper's diarrhea). 200 million infections
    • **Trypanosoma Brucei: African Sleeping sickness. spread by tsetse flies
    • **T. Cruzi: Causes chagas' disease-spread by kissing bugs
    • **= should know
  11. FUNGI
    • Yeasts (Microscopic), molds, mushrooms
    • All non-photosynthetic, non-phagocytotic, Cell wall made of chitin.
    • Bodies of fungi called Thalli
    • Cellular Filaments called hyphae
    • sexual cycle involves reversible mating types (A & Alpha)
    • Can either be symbionts or parasites
    • Saprobes/decomposers
  12. Reproduction in Fungi
    • Sexual or nonsexual
    • All form spores from either sexual or vegetative cells
    • 2 haploid cells fuse in sexual cycles (2 nuclei)
    • Type of sporulation used for classification
    • Spores are mainly for dispersal, but can stand harsh environments
  13. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (Yeast)
    • Non-pathogenic
    • Used to make recombinant proteins
    • Have some regulation similar to multi-cellular eukaryotes
    • Can grown in both haploid and diploid states
    • Always ability to have 2 mating types
    • Forms an ascus-contain 4 haploid spores
  14. Candida albicans (Yeast)
    • Opportunistic pathogens
    • Hard to get rid of once it is infected because it display dimorphic growth (Mycelial type growth)
    • High mortality rate due to 100's of toxins produced
    • Disease include thrush
  15. Fungal cancer-causing toxins-Aflatoxins and fumonisins
    • Aflatoxins: Produced by aspergillus. Found in moist grains, nuts, beer, cocoa, raisins
    • Fumonisins: Produced by Fusarium. Found in corn. Cause pulmonary edema in pigs. Esophogeal cancer in humans

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