Psychopathology is the scientific studying of abnormal behaviour, which concentrates on behaviour and cognitive- empirical data to describe nature of disorder, what causes abnormal behaviour mechanisms/cause, apply research to find best treatment.
What is 'abnormal'?
- Deviates from the norm
- Causes distress
- Culturally unacceptable
Problems in classification of abnormal?
Description of abnormal behaviour?
- identify specific symptoms
- describe onset; acute/chronic
Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders
What are the 5 axes of the DSM IV?
I- most major disorders
II- stable, enduring problems
III- Medical conditions relevant to each disorder
IV- psychosocial and environmental factors including specific sources
V- global assessment of current functioning
How can we test the value of clinical and research assessments?
validity, reliability, standardisation
What are the historical conceptions of psychopathology?
supernatural, biological, psychological
Describe the psycholoanalytical model?
Freud highlighted that the imbalances of the unconcious part of the mind (id, ego, superego) at different psychosexual phases caused abnormal behaviour and to treat it, the conflict must be brought to light in that psychosexual phase.
What does the psychoanalytical model suggest happen when the conflict is unresolved?
Unresolved conflicts are repressed into the unconcious via defense mechanisms: denial, transference, and repression
Describe the humanistic model.
Based on self actualisation: All individuals can reach their full potential in all areas of functioning if they have the freedom to grow. Lower needs must be fulfilled before higher needs can be reached.
When can maladjustments occur according to the humanistic model?
1. Environment imposes conditions of worth
2. Person’s own experience, emotions, needs are blocked
3. Self-actualisation is not reached because yourself actualised personal needs are blocked by yourdesire to fulfil others hopes for you.
What are the 3 behavioural models?
1. Classic conditioning (Pavlov)
2. Operant conditioning
3. Observational modelling
What is classical conditioning?
Classical condition is when a unconditioned stimulus (which produces a unconditioned response) is paired with a neutral stimulus repeatedly. After time, the neutral stimulus, and alone, it can produce a conditioned response.
What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is when consequences of behaviour influence its likelihood of occuring again.
- reinforcement: is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency.
- punishment: is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency.
- extinction- is the lack of any consequence following a behavior which leads to a decline in the response.
What are the 4 contexts of operant conditioning?
- Positive reinforcement- occurs when a behaviour is followed by a reward increasing the frequency of that behaviour
- negative reinforcement- occurs when a behaviour is followed when an aversive stimulus is removed to increase the frequency of that behaviour
- positive punishment- occurs when a behavior is followed by a stimulus, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
- negative punishment- occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
What is observational learning/modelling?
Learning through the experiences of others by watching them
What are the three roles of modelling?
- Acquisition of new behaviour
- Change incidence of existing behaviour
- Indirect effects of behaviour that are unrelated to modelling e.g. emotional arousal
How can maladaptive behaviour occur from observational modelling?
- wrong associative learning
- inappropriate role models
- reinforcing maladaptive behaviours
Describe the cognitive model
what we think influences what we feel and do
How can maladaptive behaviour occur in the cognitive model?