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What is psychopathology?
Psychopathology is the scientific studying of abnormal behaviour, which concentrates on behaviour and cognitive- empirical data to describe nature of disorder, what causes abnormal behaviour mechanisms/cause, apply research to find best treatment.
What is 'abnormal'?
- - Deviates from the norm
- - Causes distress
- - Culturally unacceptable
Problems in classification of abnormal?
Description of abnormal behaviour?
- - identify specific symptoms
- - describe onset; acute/chronic
- - course
- - epidemology
Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders
What are the 5 axes of the DSM IV?
- I- most major disorders
- II- stable, enduring problems
- III- Medical conditions relevant to each disorder
- IV- psychosocial and environmental factors including specific sources
- V- global assessment of current functioning
How can we test the value of clinical and research assessments?
validity, reliability, standardisation
What are the historical conceptions of psychopathology?
supernatural, biological, psychological
Describe the psycholoanalytical model?
Freud highlighted that the imbalances of the unconcious part of the mind (id, ego, superego) at different psychosexual phases caused abnormal behaviour and to treat it, the conflict must be brought to light in that psychosexual phase.
What does the psychoanalytical model suggest happen when the conflict is unresolved?
Unresolved conflicts are repressed into the unconcious via defense mechanisms: denial, transference, and repression
Describe the humanistic model.
Based on self actualisation: All individuals can reach their full potential in all areas of functioning if they have the freedom to grow. Lower needs must be fulfilled before higher needs can be reached.
When can maladjustments occur according to the humanistic model?
- 1. Environment imposes conditions of worth
- 2. Person’s own experience, emotions, needs are blocked
- 3. Self-actualisation is not reached because yourself actualised personal needs are blocked by yourdesire to fulfil others hopes for you.
What are the 3 behavioural models?
- 1. Classic conditioning (Pavlov)
- 2. Operant conditioning
- 3. Observational modelling
What is classical conditioning?
Classical condition is when a unconditioned stimulus (which produces a unconditioned response) is paired with a neutral stimulus repeatedly. After time, the neutral stimulus, and alone, it can produce a conditioned response.
What is operant conditioning?
- Operant conditioning is when consequences of behaviour influence its likelihood of occuring again.
- - reinforcement: is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency.
- - punishment: is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency.
- - extinction- is the lack of any consequence following a behavior which leads to a decline in the response.
What are the 4 contexts of operant conditioning?
- - Positive reinforcement- occurs when a behaviour is followed by a reward increasing the frequency of that behaviour
- - negative reinforcement- occurs when a behaviour is followed when an aversive stimulus is removed to increase the frequency of that behaviour
- - positive punishment- occurs when a behavior is followed by a stimulus, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
- - negative punishment- occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
What is observational learning/modelling?
Learning through the experiences of others by watching them
What are the three roles of modelling?
- - Acquisition of new behaviour
- - Change incidence of existing behaviour
- - Indirect effects of behaviour that are unrelated to modelling e.g. emotional arousal
How can maladaptive behaviour occur from observational modelling?
- - wrong associative learning
- - inappropriate role models
- - reinforcing maladaptive behaviours
Describe the cognitive model
what we think influences what we feel and do
How can maladaptive behaviour occur in the cognitive model?
irrational thoughts and core beliefs- negative automatic thoughts, overgeneralisation, catastrophising, personalising, selective attention, magnification
What does psychoanalytical therapy involve?
- - Aim: Reduce defences and gain insight into hidden intrapsychic conflict which leads to improvement
- - free association
- - dream analysis
- - transference nature of client patient relationship
- - counter transference
- - drawbacks: intensive, expensive, little empirical basis, not much supportive evidence of success
What does humanisitic therapy involve?
- - very minimal therapist interpretation
- - "client-centred therapy": Ultimate aim: eliminate unrealistic conditions of worth and allow self-actualisation
- - uses three techniques:
- 1. empathic understanding
- 2. treating client as equal
- 3. integration of self concept is consistent with experience
- - little empirical basis
What does behavioural therapy involve?
- - Aim: change overt, observable maladaptive behaviou
- - Empirical research based and evaluated based on qualitative data
What does cognitive therapy involve?
- - based on cognitive restructuring: client aims to identify the irrational thoughts and then persuades theclient to recognise them for what they are
- - strategies are: behavioural experiments
- socratic questioning
- cognitive restrcturing
- strong evidence of effectiveness
What is schizophrenia?
- Schizophrenia is charaterised by:
- - delusions and hallucinations
- - disorganised speech and behaviour
- - inappropriate emotions
- - devastating the lives of themselves and loved ones around them
What is the DMV IV clinical description of schizophrenia?
- Positive symptoms:- delusions, hallucinations
- negative symptoms- avolition, alogia, anhedonia, flat affect
- disorganised symptoms- illogical speech, tangentiality
DSM schizophrenia subtypes?
- paranoid- positive symptoms
- disorganised- flat or inappropriate, early signs + chronic
- catatonic- remain in a fixed position for a long time, odd mannerisms, echolalia, echopraxia
What are other psychotic disorders?
- • Schizophreniform Disorder- temporary schizophrenia
- • Schizoaffective Disorder- mood disorders+ schizophrenia
- • Delusional Disorder- reality delusion, may remain in isolation
- • Brief Psychotic Disorder- brief positive symptoms
- • Shared Psychotic Disorder- development of delusions as a result of a close relationship with a delusional person
What are the biological causes of schizophrenia?
- - large genetic component
- - neurochemicals- dopamine?
- - neuroanatomical- structural abnormalities: enlarged ventricles, depressed metabolism, decreased lateralisation
What are the psychological causes of schizophrenia?
- - major life stressful events
- - early family instability
- - expressed emotion
What are the 2 types of expressed emotion and describe them.
- High EE- overinvolved, more boundaries, critical
- Low EE- more accepting and supportive
What are the biological treatments for schizophrenia?
- - Historical: insulin coma therapy, psychosurgery, ECT
- - Neuroleptic drugs
What are some psychological treatments for schizophrenia?
- Psychologists can help prevent relapse:- Symptom management
- • Identify and cope with warning signs of relapse
- • Identify and cope with persistent symptoms
- • Identify benefits of resisting alcohol and street drugs, learn how to refuse offers- Medication compliance is crucial
- • Understand how drugs work and why you need to keep taking
- • Follow appropriate procedures for taking medication
- • Evaluate responses to medication daily;
- • Knowing specific side effects, what to do when they occur
- • How to obtain assistance from health care providers when problems occur with medication
- • Psychologists can help prevent relapse:- Independent living skills, social skills:
- • Token economies: operant conditioning principles
- • Encourage socialisation, participation in group sessions
- • Self care (bed making, cleaning), living skills
- • Discourage inappropriate behaviours- Family stress management:
- • Information about schizophrenia, causes
- • Practical facts about medication and management
- • Communication skills (empathic listening, expressing negative feelings constructively)
- • Problem solving skills to deal with conflict situations
- • Also promising emerging evidence for cognitive approaches
What is major depressive disorder?
- Experiencing recurrent major depressive episodes:
- - Extremely depressed mood and/or anhedonia
- - Cognitive symptoms: indecisiveness
- - Somatic symptoms: fatigue, sleep or appetite change
- - Recurrent thoughts about death, suicide
What is dysthmia?
Persistently depressed mood milder than major depression over a long period of time
What is double depression?
What is bipolar disorder?
alternating between depressive and manic states
What is a manic episode?
- - Persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood
- - Grandiosity, talkativeness, low need for sleep, distractibility, flight of ideas, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities with potentially negative consequences
What is a hypomanic episode?
Lesser time frame than manic episode
What is the difference between bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia?
- BPI- alternations between full manic and depressive episodes
- BPII- alternations between hypomanic and depressive episodes
- CYC- alternations between long persisting hypomanic and depressive episodes
What are the evidence behind genetic influences in the causes of schizophrenia?
- family studies- high rate in first degree relatives
- adoption studies- mixed results
- twin studies- Concordance rates for mood disorders are high in identical twins
What are the biological causes of schizophrenia
What are the psychological influences behind schizophrenia?
What is learned helplessness?
- - humans respond helplessnessly when they make the attribution that their actions cannot control their circumstances
- - Types of attributions: Internal- explains the cause of something related to yourself, stable- assignscauses that are permanent, global – assigns causes that are temporary and not permanent
- - Depression results from a tendency towards negative interpretations of events
What are some biological treatments for schizophrenia?
- drugs- negative side affects
- ECT- applying brief electircal current to the brain
What are some psychological treatments for schizophrenia?
- • cognitive therapy
- • Interpersonal Psychotherapy- Focuses on problematic interpersonal relationships