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Most pulmonary emboli originate from thrombi in the:
Which of the following is a thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) agent?
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA)
Name three commonly used diagnostic testing procedures for pulmonary embolism:
- hemodynamic values
- radiographic findings
Which of the above three is considered most definitive?
x-ray/ pulmonary angiogram- most definitive test to confirm presence of embolism
Name three common types of emboli:
Pulmonary infarction due to pulmonary emboli is rare because the lung tissue receives oxygen
from three sources. What are these three sources?
- directly from airways
- perfusion past the embolus
- collateral blood flow via bronchial arteries
Contributing factors for the development of a DVT include:
- venous stasis
- damage to blood vessels
- hypercoagulability - abnormal platelets
What is the most common symptom of a patient with pulmonary emboli?
What respiratory therapy modality is always indicated in the treatment of pulmonary embolism?
Which of the following hemodynamic values would commonly be INCREASED in a patient with pulmonary emboli?
Name three contributing factors to atelectasis:
- inadequate lung distention
- obstruction of airways
- insufficient surfactant levels
contributing factos sample of inadequate lung distention
- chest wall deformities - kyphosis, scoliosis
- muscle disruption due to surgery
- neuromuscular disease
- surgical trauma to phrenic nerve
contributing factors sample of obstruction of airways
- retained secretions
- weak or absent cough
- failure of mucosiliary transport
contributing factors sample of insufficient surfactant levels
- anesthetic gases
- pulmonary edema
- reduction of perfusion
Which chest X-ray finding would be seen in pulmonary atelectasis?
- Mediastinal shift away from the affected area
- Hyperlucency in the affected area
- Elevation of the diaphragm on the affected side
What three respiratory therapy modalities are often indicated in the treatment of postoperative atelectasis? What does each modality treat? (Ahem, ‘modalities’ are general, not specific)