Pharm Block 1g

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Pharm Block 1g
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  1. What are the uses of Somatropin?
    • -Treatment of growth failure due to GH
    • deficiency, chronic renal failure and turner’s syndrome.

    -Wasting in patients with HIV/AIDS.
  2. What are some Adverse effects of Growth hormone (somatropin) treatment?
    • Adverse effects includes:
    • edema,carpal tunnel syndrome, rarely ↑ ICT (pseudotumor cerebri).
  3. What is Pegvisomant (Somavert)?
    What is it used for?
    Why can it be toxic?
    • -It is a growth hormone receptor antagonist
    • -Useful for the treatment of acromegaly.

    -Toxicity: Increased liver enzymes
  4. What other drugs are useful in treating Acromegaly?
    Dopamine agonists like cabergoline and bromocriptine
  5. List the treatments of Acromegaly
    Primary-- Surgery, radiotherapy, domamine agonists, somatostatin analogues

    Secondary--- GH-receptor antagonists
  6. What determines which gonadotropin is secreted?
    The frequency and amplitude of the GnRH pulses
  7. What do LH and FSH share?
    Have the same α subunit but differ in β subunit.
  8. What are the effects of FSH in females? in males?

    What are the effects of LH in females? in males?
    FSH: Females--- stimulates follicle maturation and estrogen synthesis. In males in stimulates spermatogenesis.

    LH: in females it induces Ovulation. In males it stimulates leydig cells in the testes to produces Tostosterone.
  9. What is Urofollitropin/ Follitropin?

    What is Menotropins(hMG)?
    What is hChorionic Gonadotropin?
    - FSH agonist

    - contains FSH and LH

    - is a LH agonist
  10. What are the uses of Gonadotropin preparations?
    • 1. Ovulation
    • induction : The gonadotropins are used to induce
    • ovulation in women with anovulation that is secondary to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, polycystic ovary
    • syndrome and obesity.

    2. Male infertility :hCG is used.
  11. what is a posible toxicity when dealing with Gonadotropin preparations?
    • ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and
    • multiple pregnancies
  12. what are the effects of Dopamine antagonists?

    what are the effects of excessive prolatin secretion?
    -They increase the levels of Prolactin.


    - Leads to galactorrhea and infertility
  13. what are Bromocriptine and Cabergoline?
    What are they used for?
    They are Dopamine agonists

    -To treat hyperprolatinoma
  14. What are the effects of TRH and Estrogens on Pituitary prolactin?
    They promote prolatin's release.
  15. What are Oxytocin (Pitocin)'s effects?
    • -Causes the contraction of uterus and myoepithelial cells of the breast.
    • - Also prevents post partum hemorrhages
    • - Lets down milk
  16. What are Oxytocin (Pitocin)'s adverse effects?

    Name some Oxytocin antagonists: What is it used for?
    Seizures and hyponatremia

    Atosiban---- used for the treatment of preterm labor.
  17. Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) or (ADH), when is it secreted?
    What is an other odd effect?
    What is its mechanism of effect?
    • -Secreted in response to a decrease in ECF volume or an increase in plasma osmolarity.
    • - Mediates the release of Factor VIII and vWF
    • -Interacts with two types of vasopressin - V1 and V2 receptors.
  18. What is the effect of ADH binding to V1?

    Binding to V2?
    - Vasoconstiction--> Increased Arterial Pressure

    -Renal Fluid reabsorption--> increased blood volume
  19. What is Desmopressin (DDAVP)?
    What are its effects?
    Why is this drug prefered?
    - It is a vasopressin analogue

    • -increase water reabsorption from renal
    • collecting ducts (V2) and also stimulates release of VIII and vWF from endothelial cells.

    -Desmopressin is more stable than vasopressin and has little effect on blood pressure.
  20. When would you used Desmopressin?

    What is an adverse effect of this drug?
    • -Central Diabetes insipidus.
    • -Nocturnal enuresis in children, mild hemophilia and Von-Willibrand disease.

    -The most common adverse effect is water intoxication.
  21. Name 2 vassopressin receptor antagonists.

    When are they used clinically?
    • Conivaptan, Tolvaptan
    • -Used in the treatment of Hyponatremia due to SIADH.
  22. A patient has central diabetes insipidus, what can you give them?
    • -Desmopressin
    • -Chlorpropamide
    • -Carbamazepine
  23. A patient has Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, what can you give them?
    •Thiazides (for non-Li+ induced)

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